LINK BETWEEN GAWADAR PORT AND KKH

Gwadar 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(readers are requested to click this link  International designs in GB  and assess the purpose and relevance of this POST)

Gwadar (Urdu: گوادر) is a developing port city in Balochistan, Pakistan, which is situated on the southwestern coast of Pakistan on the Arabian Sea with a population of approximately 50,000.
Gwadar is strategically located between three increasingly important regions: the oil-rich Middle East, heavily populated South Asia and the economically emerging and resource-laden region of Central Asia. Gwadar is the location of the Gwadar Port, a warm-water, deep sea port.

The Gwadar Port was built on a turnkey basis by China. It was inaugurated in the spring of 2007 by then Pakistani President General Pervez Musharraf. Gwadar Port is now being expanded into a deep sea port and naval base with Chinese technical and financial assistance. Gwadar Port became operational in 2008 with the first ship to dock bringing 52,000 tonnes of wheat from Canada. Pakistan’s Minister of Ports and Shipping, Sardar Nabil Ahmed Khan Gabol, officially inaugurated the port on 21 December 2008.[2]

China has acknowledged that Gwadar’s strategic value is no less than that of the Karakoram Highway, which helped cement the China-Pakistan relationship. Beijing is also interested in turning it into an energy-transport hub by building an oil pipeline from Gwadar into China’s Xinjiang region. The planned pipeline will carry crude oil sourced from Arab and African states. Such transport by pipeline will cut freight costs and also help insulate the Chinese imports from interdiction by hostile naval forces in case of any major war.

Commercially, it is hoped that the Gwadar Port would generate billions of dollars in revenues and create at least two million jobs.[3] In 2007, the government of Pakistan handed over port operations to PSA Singapore for 25 years, and gave it the status of a Tax Free Port for the following 40 years. The main investors in the project are the Pakistani Government and the People’s Republic of China, making China’s plan to be engaged in many places along oil and gas roads evident.[4]
The Makran region surrounding Gwadar was occupied by an ancient Bronze age people which settled in the few oases. It later became the Gedrosia region of the Achaemenid Persian empire. It is believed to have been conquered by the founder of the Persian empire, Cyrus the Great. The capital of the satrapy of Gedrosia was Pura, which is thought to have been located near the modern Bampûr, in Iranian Balochistan. During the homeward march of Alexander the Great, his admiralNearchus, led a fleet along the modern-day Makran coast and recorded that the area was drymountainous, and inhabited by the “Ichthyophagoi” (or “fish eaters”), an ancient Greek rendering of the ancient Persian phrase “Mahi khoran” (which has itself become the modern word “Makran”).[5] After the collapse of Alexander’s empire the area was ruled by Seleucus Nicator, one of Alexander’s generals. The region then came under “local rule” around about 303 BC.
The region remained on the sidelines of history for a millennium, until the ArabMuslim army of Muhammad bin Qasim captured the town of Gwadar in 711 CE and over the intervening (and nearly equivalent) amount of time the area was contested by various powers, including the Mughals (from the east) and the Safavids (from the west). The Portuguese captured, sacked and burnt Gwadar in 1581,[6] and this was then followed by almost two centuries of local rule by the various Balochi tribes. The city was visited by Ottoman Admiral Seydi Ali Reis in 1550s and mentioned in his book Mirat ul Memalik (The Mirror of Countries), 1557 CE.[7] According to Seydi Ali Reis, the inhabitants of Gwadar were Baloch and their chief was Malik Jelaleddin, son of Malik Dinar. In 1783, the Khan of Kalat granted suzerainty over Gwadar to Taimur Sultan, the defeated ruler of Muscat.[8] When the sultan subsequently retook Muscat, he was to continue his rule in Gwadar by appointing a wali (or “governor“). This wali was then ordered to subjugate the nearby coastal town of Chah Bahar (in modern-day Iran). The Gwadari fort was built during Omani rule, whilst telegraph lines were later extended into the town courtesy of the British.

Until 1958 Gwadar was part of Oman but was transferred to Pakistan on 8 September 1958. The Gwadar enclave was actually sold to Pakistan (effective 8 December 1958). It was integrated within the Balochistan (Pakistan) on 1 July 1977 and became a full sub-division of the Gwadar District. The money for the purchase was generated by way of taxation and donations (most of it by Prince Ali Salman/Sir Sultan Mohammad Shah, Aga Khan-III). It was then made part of the Balochistan province. In 2002, the Gwadar Port project (of building a large, deep-sea port) was begun in the town. The government of Pakistan intends to develop the entire area in order to reduce its reliance in shipping on the port of Karachi. In addition to expanding port facilities, the Project aims to build industrial complexes in the area and to connect the town via a modern highway to the rest of Pakistan. By the end of 2004 the first phase had been completed.
 Geo-Political Importance

 Strategic location of Gwadar, and possible oil lines through the region

 The Gwadar deep-sea port emerges as a place of great strategic value, enhancing Pakistan’s importance in the whole region, extending from the Persian Gulf through the Indian Ocean to Southeast Asia and the Far East.

Gwadar is located on the southwestern coast of Pakistan, close to the important Straits of Hormuz, through which more than 13 million bpd of oil passes. It is strategically located between three increasingly important regions of the world: the oil-rich Middle East, heavily populated South Asia and the economically emerging and resource-rich Central Asia.

The construction of the Gwadar deep-sea port is just one component of a larger development plan which includes building a network of roads connecting Gwadar with the rest of Pakistan, such as the 650 km Coastal Highway to Karachi and the Gwadar-Turbat road (188 km). This network of roads connects with China through the Indus Highway. Pakistan, China, Kazakhistan, Kyrgizstan and Uzbekistan are developing extensive road and rail links from Central Asia and the Chinese province of Xinjiang to the Arabian Sea coast.

The Pakistani Government has initiated several projects, with majority financial and technical assistance from China, to develop Gwadar’s strategic location as a goods transit and trade point. The primary project is the construction of a deep-sea port at Gwadar to enable high-volume cargo movement to and from the landlocked Central Asian states. The new port will also encompass conversion facilities to allow for the movement of natural gas as a part of plans for a termination point for the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan natural gas pipeline. The secondary project is a coastal highway connecting Gwadar to Karachi, whose $200 million cost will be completely financed by the Chinese. Gwadar will serve as a port of entry for oil and gas to be transported by land to the western regions of China.

The project’s fate is tied to the decentralization of government in Pakistan.[10] If an agreement is brokered with the Baluch, the Pakistani military will gain a strategic depth southwest from its naval base in Karachi that has long been vulnerable to blockade by the Indian Navy. China is going to be the beneficiary of Gwadar’s most accessible international trade routes to the Central Asian republics and Xinjiang. By extending its East-West Railway from the Chinese border city of Kashi to Peshawar in Pakistan’s northwest, Beijing can receive cargo to and from Gwadar along the shortest route, from Karachi to Peshawar. The rail network could also be used to supply oil from the Persian Gulf to Xinjiang. Pakistan’s internal rail network can also provide China with rail access to Iran. Rail access will however be hampered somewhat by differences in gauge: China and Iran – 1435 mm; Pakistan – 1676 mm; Central Asia – 1524 mm.
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2 thoughts on “LINK BETWEEN GAWADAR PORT AND KKH

  1. An excellent in depth analysis of the subject matter. We the Hunzukuz being the part of this energy corridor should take advantage of the projects to the utmost otherwise we may end up collecting garbage left by the monster projects.

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