From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Messianism is the belief in a messiah, a savior or redeemer. Many religions have a messiah concept, including the Jewish Messiah, the Christian Christ, the Muslim Mahdi and Isa (Islamic name for Christian Jesus), the Buddhist Maitreya, the Hindu Kalki and the Zoroastrian Saoshyant. The state of the world is seen as hopelessly flawed beyond normal human powers of correction, and divine intervention through a specially selected and supported human is seen as necessary.
Masih (pronounced [ˈmɑsiːħ]) is the Arabic word for Messiah. In modern Arabic it is used as one of the many titles of Isa (عيسى `Īsā), who is known to Christians as Jesus. Masih is used by Arab Christiansas well as Muslims, and is written as Yasu’ al-Masih (يسوع المسيح ) or Isa al-Masih.
The word Masih literally means “The anointed one” and in Islam, Isa al-Masih is believed to have been anointed from birth by Alläh with the specific task of being a prophet and a king. The Israelites, to whom Isa was sent, had a traditional practice of anointing their kings with oil. An Imam Bukhari Hadith describes Jesus as having wet hair that looked as if water was dripping from it, possibly meaning he was naturally anointed . Muslims believe that this is just one of the many signs that prove that Jesus is the Messiah.
In Islam, Isa is believed to hold the task of killing the false messiah (al-Dajjal, a figure similar to the Antichrist in Christianity), who will emerge shortly before him during Qiyamah (Armageddon in Islamic belief). After he has destroyed al-Dajjal, his final task will be to become leader of the Muslims. Isa will unify the Muslim Ummah (the followers of Islam) under the common purpose of worshipping Allah alone in pure Islam, thereby ending divisions and deviations by adherents. Mainstream Muslims believe that at that time Isa will dispel Christian and Jewish claims about him.
Abdul Masih, “servant of the Messiah”, is used as a given name by Arabic-speaking Christians. Masih is also a surname among Pakistani, Iranian and Indian Christians.
Messiah is the anglicized version of a Hebrew term
(Hebrew: מָשִׁיחַ,Modern Mashiaẖ Tiberian Māšîăḥ; Greek: Μεσσίας; Aramaic: משיחא, Məšīḥaʼ;Arabic language مسيح, Masih; all meaning “anointed one”) generallytransliterated as Mashiach, designating a king or High Priest, who were traditionally anointed with holy anointing oil as described in Exodus 30:22-25 (the term was not applied exclusively to Jewish kings; the Hebrew Bible refers to Cyrus the great, king of Persia, as a messiah). Following the death of Simon bar Kokhba, who ruled Judea from 132-135 until defeated by the Romans and who was considered by some to be the last messiah, the term came to refer to a Jewish king who would rule at the end of history. In later Jewish messianic tradition and eschatology, messiah refers to a leader anointed by God, and in some cases, a future King of Israel, physically descended from the Davidic line, who will rule the united tribes of Israel and herald the Messianic Age of global peace.
The translation of the Hebrew word Mašíaḥ as Χριστός (Khristós) in the GreekSeptuagint became the accepted Christian designation and title of Jesus of Nazareth, indicative of the principal character and function of his ministry. Christians believe that prophecies in the Hebrew Bible (especially Isaiah) refer to a spiritual savior and believe Jesus to be that Messiah (Christ).
Islamic tradition holds the view that Isa (cf. Islamic views of Jesus), son of Maryam (cf. Islamic views of Mary) was indeed the promised nabi (Prophet) and masih (Messiah) sent to the Israelites, and that he will again return to Earth in the end times, along with al-Mahdi, and they will defeat Masih ad-Dajjal (lit. “false Messiah”; cf. antichrist).
Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; mashiah, moshiah, mashiach, or moshiach, (“anointed [one]”) is a term used in the Hebrew Bible to describe priests and kings, who were traditionally anointed. For example, Cyrus the Great, the king of Persia, is referred to as “God’s anointed” (Messiah) in the Bible.
In Jewish messianic tradition and eschatology, the term came to refer to a future Jewish King from the Davidic line, who will be “anointed” with holy anointing oil and rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age. In Standard Hebrew, The Messiah is often referred to as מלך המשיח, Méleḫ ha-Mašíaḥ (in the Tiberian vocalization pronounced Méleḵ hamMāšîªḥ), literally meaning “the Anointed King.”
Traditional Rabbinic teachings and current Orthodox thought has held that the Messiah will be an anointed one (messiah), descended from his father through the Davidic line of King David, who will gather the Jews back into the Land of Israel and usher in an era of peace.
Other denominations, such as Reform Judaism, perceive a Messianic Age when the world will be at peace, but do not agree that there will be a Messiah as the leader of this era.
In Christianity, the Second Coming is the anticipated return of Jesus from the heavens to the earth (Zechariah 14:3-4, Acts 1:11, Revelation 19:11-20:6), an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic prophecy, such as the resurrection of the dead, the last judgment of the dead and the living and the establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth, including the Messianic Age. Views about the nature of this return vary among Christian denominations. Jesus is understood as having fulfilled the laws set forth by Moses (such as sacrificial offerings) with the supposition that those laws represented Jesus in the first place, being the shadow of the true substance which would be this new fulfillment, see also New Covenant. Therefore, this new fulfillment of the law is believed to now have potentiality in being upheld by each individual instinctively, as Jesus Spirit is believed to be abiding in each Christian. This includes the allowance and explanation of calling God “Father”, because God recognizes the new Christian as a son, since that person has Jesus own Spirit within them. However, Christianity has a unique attribute of a tri-part God. The “Son” is believed to be one with the “Father”, and also with the “Spirit”. Therefore there is an overall understanding of oneness, and each identity of the Christian God is fully separate, and power is authoritatively different while at the same time retaining equality among the Godhead, as being all three aspects to one God. Granted, this explanation only roughly describes the triune God within the Christian Religion. Therefore, God himself is the Messiah, King of All the Earth, in the person of Christ Jesus.
In Islamic eschatology the Mahdi (مهدي Mahdī, also Mehdi; “Guided One”) is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will stay on earth seven, nine, or nineteen years (depending on the interpretation) before the coming of Yaum al-Qiyamah (literally “Day of the Resurrection” or “Day of the Standing”). Muslims believe the Mahdi will rid the world of error, injustice and tyranny alongside Jesus.The concept of Mahdi is not mentioned in the Qur’an nor in the Sunni hadith collection called Sahih al-Bukhari. Hadith about the Mahdi are present in other Sunni hadith collections, although some orthodox Sunnī theologians question do Mahdist beliefs. Such beliefs do form a necessary part of Shīʿī doctrine.
The idea of the Mahdi has been described as important to Sufi Muslims, and a “powerful and central religious idea” for Shia Muslims who believe the Mahdi is the Twelfth Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi who will return from occultation. However, among Sunni, it “never became a formal doctrine” and is neither endorsed, nor condemned “by the consensus of Sunni Ulama.” It has “gained a strong hold on the imagination of many ordinary” self-described orthodox Sunni though, thanks to Sufi preaching. Another source distinguishes between Sunni and Shia beliefs on the Mahdi saying the Sunni believe the Mahdi will be a descendant of the Prophet named Muhammad who will revive the faith, but not necessarily be connected with the end of the world, Jesus or perfection.
The word Masih literally means “The anointed one” and in Islam, Isa son of Mariam, al-Masih (The Messiah Jesus son of Virgin Mary) is believed to have been anointed from birth by Allah with the specific task of being a prophet and a king. In orthodox Islam, Isa is believed to hold the task of killing the false messiah al-Dajjal (similar to the Antichrist in Christianity), who will emerge shortly before him during Qiyamah. After he has destroyed al-Dajjal, his final task will be to become leader of the Muslims. Isa will unify the Muslim Umma hunder the common purpose of worshipping Allah alone in pure Islam, thereby ending divisions and deviations by adherents. Mainstream Muslims believe that at that time Isa will dispel Christian and Jewish claims about him.
Maitreya is a bodhisattva who in the Buddhist tradition is to appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor of the historic Śākyamuni Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. The prophecy of the arrival of Maitreya is found in the canonical literature of all Buddhist sects (Theravāda, Mahāyāna, Vajrayāna) and is accepted by most Buddhists as a statement about an actual event that will take place in the distant future.
Around the 3rd century CA religious Taoism developed eschatological ideas. A number of scriptures predict the end of the world cycle, the deluge, epidemics, and coming of the saviour Li Hong 李弘 (not to be confused with the Tang personalities).
In Hinduism, Kalki (Devanagari: कल्कि; also rendered by some as Kalkin and Kalaki) is the tenth and final Maha Avatara (great incarnation) of Vishnu who will come to end the present age of darkness and destruction known as Kali Yuga. The name Kalki is often a metaphor for eternity or time. The origins of the name probably lie in the Sanskrit word “kalka” which refers to dirt, filth, or foulness and hence denotes the “destroyer of foulness,” “destroyer of confusion,” “destroyer of darkness,” or “annihilator of ignorance.”
According to Zoroastrian philosophy, redacted in the Zand-i Vohuman Yasht, “at the end of thy tenth hundredth winter […] the sun is more unseen and more spotted; the year, month, and day are shorter; and the earth is more barren; and the crop will not yield the seed; and men […] become more deceitful and more given to vile practices. They have no gratitude.
Honorable wealth will all proceed to those of perverted faith […] and a dark cloud makes the whole sky night […] and it will rain more noxious creatures than winter.”
Saoshyant, the Man of Peace, battles the forces of evil. The events of the final renovation are described in the Bundahishn (30.1ff): In the final battle with evil, the yazatas Airyaman and Atar will “melt the metal in the hills and mountains, and it will be upon the earth like a river” (Bundahishn 34.18), but the righteous (ashavan) will not be harmed.
Eventually, Ahura Mazda will triumph, and his agent Saoshyant will resurrect the dead, whose bodies will be restored to eternal perfection, and whose souls will be cleansed and reunited with God. Time will then end, and truth/righteousness (asha) and immortality will thereafter be everlasting.
Main article: Religious Zionism
Religious Zionists are the Jewish religious minority of the basically secular Zionist movement who justified, on the basis of Judaism, secular Zionist efforts to build a Jewish state in the land of Israel. In their belief, the Jewish state is “the commencement of the growth of our redemption” (Hebrew: ראשית צמיחת גאולתנו reshit tzmichat ge’ulateinu), and that state may be brought about by human action, without waiting for the Messiah to gather the Jews back into the Land of Israel. This view ran contrary to the view of Ultra-Orthodox Judaism which rejected any secular, human effort to preempt the ingathering of the exiles by God and his chosen one, the Messiah. Religious Zionists explained in terms acceptable to the Halakha, the secular, mainly socialist, existentialist Zionist vision where material needs of the people are addressed through practical and realistic solutions, reflected by secular philosophers such as Ahad Ha’am.
The main ideologue of modern religious Zionism was Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook, who justified Zionism according Jewish law and urged young religious Jews to support efforts to settle the land, and the mainsteam, majority, secular and socialist Labour Zionists to give more consideration to Judaism.
Rav Kook saw Zionism as a part of a divine scheme which would result in the resettlement of the Jewish people in its homeland. This would bring salvation (Geula) to Jews, and then to the entire world. After world harmony is achieved by the refoundation of the Jewish homeland, the Messiah will come.
The apparent contradiction arising from the fact that political and practical Zionism were overwhelmingly secular, socialist and even atheist schools of thought, was resolved by the concept of “the Messiah’s donkey” (Hebrew: חמורו של משיח khamoro shel mashiakh) whereby majority secular Zionism was seen as a temporary divine measure for the achievement of Jewish salvation.
Since the Six Day War, Religious Zionism, speared by mass-movements such as Gush Emunim, has been the leading force behindJewish settlement in the non-consensual areas of Judea and Samaria, bringing about the main schism dividing Israeli politics for the past 40 years.
Rastafarianism believes that Emperor Haile Selassie was not killed by the Derg in Ethiopia’s civil war, but will return to save Earth, and in particular, people of African descent. This is a particularly interesting case, as Selassie is identified as the Second Coming of Jesus, so the Rastafarian prophecy is effectively a second coming of the second coming.
This cargo cult believes in a messiah figure called John Frum. When David Attenborough asked one of its adherents if it was rational for them to be still waiting for Frum to re-appear after 50 years, he was told that Christianity had been waiting 2,000 years, so waiting for Frum was much more rational than that.
Russian and Slavic
Romantic Slavic messianism held that the Slavs, especially the Russians, suffer in order that other European nations, and eventually all of humanity, may be redeemed. This theme had a profound impact in the development of Russian and Soviet imperialism; it also appears in works by the Polish Romantic poets Zygmunt Krasiński and Adam Mickiewicz, including the latter’s familiar expression, “Polska Chrystusem narodów” (“Poland is the Christ of the nations”).
See also: Jewish eschatology
The literal translation of the Hebrew word moshiach (messiah) is “anointed,” which refers to a ritual of consecrating someone or something by putting holy oil upon it.[1 Sam. 10:1-2] It is used throughout the Hebrew Bible in reference to a wide variety of individuals and objects; for example, a Jewish king,[1 Kings 1:39] Jewish priests,[Lev. 4:3] and prophets,[Isa. 61:1] the Jewish Temple and its utensils,[Ex. 40:9-11] unleavened bread,[Num. 6:15] and a non-Jewish king (Cyrus king of Persia).[Isa. 45:1]
The Torah describes the advent of a messiah in the portion of Balak, couched in poetic prophetic prose: “I see him, but not now. I perceive him, but he is not near. There shall step forth a star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel… From Jacob shall issue out and destroy the remnant of the city”, which Jewish Biblical scholars expound refers to the king’s victory over Israel’s enemies.
Modern Jewish movements are based on Pharisaic Judaism was embodied in the Talmud. The Talmud is replete with references and anecdotes about the Messiah and the Messianic era. It states in tractate Sanhedrin “The Jews are destined to eat [their fill] in the days of the Messiah”, “The world was created only…for the sake of the Messiah.” and “All the prophets prophesied [all the good things] only in respect of the Messianic era.” It also provides exegesis of scriptural verses which illustrate the events that will occur at that time. For example, resurrection of the dead, which is exegetically supported by a verse in Exodus 15: “Az Yashir Moshe…” – “Then [Moses] will sing…”, from which is derived that “then” (in the Messianic Era) Moses will arise and once again sing as he did at the time of the Exodus. (Some Jewish texts also refer to a “Messiah ben Joseph” or “Messiah ben Ephraim”, a military leader descended from the biblical Ephraim, who will successfully lead the army of Israel in many battles before being killed by Armilus, when Israel is defeated by Gog and Magog. His body will subsequently lie unburied in the Jerusalem streets for forty days, and he will be the first person resurrected by the Messiah descended from King David).
In Jewish eschatology, the term came to refer to a future Jewish King from the Davidic line, who will be “anointed” with holy anointing oiland rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age. Belief in the eventual coming of a future messiah is a fundamental part of Judaism, and is one of Maimonides‘ 13 Principles of Faith. In Judaism, the Messiah is not considered to be God or a Son of God.
The Messianic Age is described as follows by Maimonides:
And at that time there will be no hunger or war, no jealousy or rivalry. For the good will be plentiful, and all delicacies available as dust. The entire occupation of the world will be only to know God… the people Israel will be of great wisdom; they will perceive the esoteric truths and comprehend their Creator’s wisdom as is the capacity of man. As it is written (Isaiah 11:9): “For the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of God, as the waters cover the sea.” “
Maimonides describes the identity of the Messiah in the following terms:
And if a king shall arise from among the House of David, studying Torah and occupied with commandments like his father David, according to the written and oral Torah, and he will impel all of Israel to follow it and to strengthen breaches in its observance, and will fight Hashem’s [God’s] wars, this one is to be treated as if he were the anointed one. If he succeeded and built the Holy Temple in its proper place and gathered the dispersed ones of Israel together, this is indeed the anointed one for certain, and he will mend the entire world to worship the Lord together, as it is stated: “For then I shall turn for the nations a clear tongue, so that they will all procalim the Name of the Lord, and to worship Him with a united resolve (Zephaniah 3:9).”
A prominent Judaism Web site states:
Belief in the eventual coming of the mashiach is a basic and fundamental part of traditional Judaism. It is part of Rambam’s 13 Principles of Faith, the minimum requirements of Jewish belief. In the Shemoneh Esrei prayer, recited three times daily, we pray for all of the elements of the coming of the Moshiach: gathering of the exiles; restoration of the religious courts of justice; an end of wickedness, sin, and heresy; reward to the righteous; rebuilding of Jerusalem; restoration of the line of King David; and restoration of Temple service.
A common modern rabbinic interpretation is that there is a potential messiah in every generation. The Talmud, which often uses stories to make a moral point (aggadah), tells of a highly respected rabbi who found the Messiah at the gates of Rome and asked him, “When will you finally come?” He was quite surprised when he was told, “Today.” Overjoyed and full of anticipation, the man waited all day. The next day he returned, disappointed and puzzled, and asked, “You said messiah would come ‘today’ but he didn’t come! What happened?” The Messiah replied, “Scripture says, ‘Today, ‘if you will but hearken to His voice.'”[Ps. 95:7]
Ancient claimants: JEWISH
Main article: Christ
Christianity emerged early in the first century AD as a movement among Jews (Jewish Christians) and their Gentile converts (sometimes called Godfearers) who believed that Jesus is the Christ or Messiah. The Greek translation for ‘Messiah’ is khristos (χριστος), anglicized as Christ. Christians commonly refer to Jesus as either the “Christ” or the “Messiah.” In Christian theology the two words are synonymous.
Christians believe Jesus to be the Messiah that Jews were expecting:
The Christian concept of the Christ/Messiah as “the Word made Flesh” (see also Logos) is fundamentally different from the Jewish andIslamic. The majority of historical and mainline Christian theologies, as seen within the Nicene Creed, consider Jesus to be God or God the Son.
Christians believe that Daniel (Hebrew: דָּנִיֵּאל, or Daniyyel) was a prophet and gave an indication of when the Messiah, the princemashiyach nagiyd, would come in the Prophecy of Seventy Weeks.[Dan. 9:25-26] Daniel’s prophecies refer to him as a descendant of King David, a Son of Man, who will rebuild the nation of Israel, destroy the wicked, and ultimately judge the whole world.
§ He was raised from the dead on the third day after He was crucified to prove that He has defeated death and the power of Satan, thus enabling those that receive Him as their Savior to live under God’s grace. [Galatians 2:16]
§ He ascended to heaven [Acts 1:9-10] where He currently reigns over the world at God’s right hand[Romans 8:34][Ephesians 1:20][Colossians 3:1] and from where he will return [Acts 1:10][1Thessalonians 4:16]
§ He serves as the pioneer and embodiment of the culture and living presence of the Kingdom of God
§ When he returns he will judge the world [2Corinthians 5:10] and reign over a new creation[Revelation 21:1]. Christian believers are invited to spend eternity in this new world.[Revelation 21:22-27] (The exact order of these things differs according to the preferred theological framework of Millennialism used to interpret the passages)
§ He is the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and he came to earth as a human. John 1:1-2,14a: In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. 14a And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us. John 8:58: Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM.
“”He was chosen and hidden with God before the world was created, and will remain in His presence forevermore … He will judge all hidden things, and no one will be able to make vain excuses to him”
Christianity often interprets the phrase as a reference to Daniel 7:13-14 (KJV):
“I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.”[Daniel 7:7,13]
Because Christians believe that Jesus is the Messiah and that he claimed to be the Son of Man referred to by Daniel, Christianity interprets Daniel 7:13-14 as a statement of the Messiah’s authority and that the Messiah will have an everlasting kingdom in theMessianic Age. Jesus’ use of this title is seen as a direct claim to be the Messiah.
Christianity interprets a wide range of biblical passages in the Old Testament (Hebrew scripture) as predicting the coming of the Messiah (see Christianity and Biblical prophecy for examples), and believes that they are fulfilled in Jesus’ own explicit life and teaching:
§ Will be born in Bethlehem [Micah 5:2-5]
§ The root of Jesse …to whom the Gentiles will seek. [Ia. 11:10]
§ He said to them…”Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken: Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory? And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.”[Lk. 24:25-27]
§ “Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures, And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behooved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day: And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.”[Lk. 24:45-47]
§ The Gospel of Matthew repeatedly says, “This was to fulfill the prophecy….”
Christians believe the Messianic prophecies were fulfilled in the mission, death, and resurrection of Jesus, and seeks to spread throughout the world its interpretation that the Messiah (Jesus) is the only God, and that Jesus will return to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy.
The Qur’an states Jesus the Son of Mary (Arabic: Isa ibn Maryum) is the Messiah or “Prophet” sent to the Jews,[Quran 3:45] and Muslims believe Jesus is alive in Heaven and will return to Earth to defeat the Antichrist (Arabic: Dajjal).
Narrated Abu Hurayrah: The Prophet said: There is no prophet between me and him, that is, Jesus. He will descend (to the earth). When you see him, recognise him: a man of medium height, reddish hair, wearing two light yellow garments, looking as if drops were falling down from his head though it will not be wet. He will fight for the cause of Islam. He will break the cross, kill the swine, and put an end to war (in another Tradition, there is the word Jizyah instead of Harb (war), meaning that he will abolish jizyah); God will perish all religions except Islam. He [Jesus] will destroy the Antichrist who will live on the earth for forty days and then he will die. The Muslims will pray behind him.
Both Sunni and Shia Muslims agree al-Mahdi will arrive first, and after him, Jesus. Jesus will proclaim that the true leader is al-Mahdi. A war, literally Jihad (Jihade Asghar) will be fought—the Dajjal (evil) against al-Mahdi and Jesus (good). This war will mark the approach of the coming of the Last Day. After Jesus slays al-Dajjāl at the Gate of Lud [disambiguation needed ], he will bear witness and reveal that Islam is indeed the true and last word from God to humanity as Yusuf Ali’s translation reads: “And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment He will be a witness against them.[Quran 4:159]” He will live for several years, marry, have children and will be buried in Medina.
Allah’s Apostle said “How will you be when the son of Mary descends amongst you and your Imam is from amongst you.”
Very few scholars outside of mainstream Islam reject all the quotes (Hadith) attributed to Prophet Muhammad that mention the second return of Jesus, the Dajjal and Imam Mahdi, believing that they have no Qur’anic basis. However, Quran emphatically rejects the implication of termination of Jesus’ life when he was allegedly crucified. Yusuf Ali’s translation reads “That they said (in boast), “We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah”;― but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not.― (157) Nay, Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise. (158) Verses[Quran 4:157] imply that Jesus was not killed physically but it was made to appear so. Verse [Quran 19:33] “So Peace is on me the day I was born, the day that I die and the day that I shall be raised up to life (again)”! implies that Jesus will die someday. The unified opinion of Islam maintains that the bodily death of Jesus will happen after his second coming.
Many classical commentators such as Ibn Kathir, At-Tabari, al-Qurtubi, Suyuti, al-Undlusi (Bahr al-Muhit), Abu al-Fadl al-Alusi (Ruh al-Maani) clearly mention that verse [Quran 43:61] of the Qur’an refers to the descent of Jesus before the Day of Resurrection, indicating that Jesus would be the Sign that the Hour is close.
Those that reject the second coming of Jesus argue that the knowledge of the Hour is only with God, and that the Hour will come suddenly. They maintain that if the second coming of Jesus were true, whenever it happens, billions of people would then be certain the Hour is about to come. The response given to this is that signs that the Last Hour is near have been foretold and given, including that of the second coming of Jesus, as signs indicating the Last Hour is near. They will not clarify when it is to come in any specific sense, and hence do not reveal it.
In Ahmadiyya, the terms “Messiah” and “Mahdi” are synonymous terms for one and the same person. The term “Mahdi” means guided by God, thus implying a direct ordainment by God of a divinely chosen individual. According to Ahmadiyya thought, Messiahship is a phenomenon through which a special emphasis is given on the transformation of a people by way of offering suffering for the sake of God instead of giving suffering (i.e. refraining from revenge). Ahmadis believe that this special emphasis was given through the person of Jesus and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad among others.
Ahmadis hold that the prophesied eschatological figures of Christianity and Islam, the Messiah and Mahdi, were in fact to be fulfilled in one person who was to represent all previous prophets. The prophecies concerning the Mahdi or the Second Coming of Jesusare seen by Ahmadis as metaphorical and subject to interpretation. It is argued that one was to be born and rise within the dispensation of Muhammad, who by virtue of his similarity and affinity with Jesus, and the similarity in nature, temperament and disposition of the people of Jesus’ time and the people of the time of the promised one (the Mahdi) is called by the same name.
Ahmadis believe that the prophecies concerning the Mahdi and the second coming of Jesus have been fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad(1835–1908), the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement. Contrary to mainstream Islam, the Ahmadis do not believe that Jesus is alive in heaven, but that he survived the crucifixion and migrated towards the east where he died a natural death and that Ghulam Ahmad was only the promised spiritual second coming and likeness of Jesus, the promised Messiah and Mahdi.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other meanings, see Kalki (disambiguation).
In Hinduism, Kalki (Devanagari: कल्कि; also rendered by some as Kalki and Kalaki) is the tenth and final Maha Avatar (great incarnation) of Vishnu who will bring to an end the present age of darkness and destruction known as Kali Yuga. He will establish a new era based on truth, righteousness, humanism and goodness, called Satya Yuga. The name Kalki is often a metaphor for eternity or time. The origins of the name probably lie in the Sanskrit word “kalka” which refers to mud, dirt, filth, or foulness and hence denotes the “destroyer of foulness,” “destroyer of confusion,” “destroyer of darkness,” or “annihilator of ignorance.” Other similar and divergent interpretations based on varying etymological derivations from Sanskrit – including one simply meaning “White Horse” – have been made.
Li Hong (Taoist eschatology)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Li Hong (Chinese: 李弘) is a messianic figure in religious Taoism prophesied to appear at the end of the world cycle to rescue the chosen people, who would be distinguished by certain talismans, practices and virtues. Myths surrounding Li Hong took shape in literature during the Han dynasty. He is depicted in the Daoist scripture Spirit Spells of the Abyss as an ideal leader who would reappear to set right heaven (tian) and earth (dì) at a time of upheaval and chaos. Li Hong is sometimes considered to be an avatar or reincarnation of Laozi, with whom he shares the surname Li. Prophesies concerning Li Hong’s appearance have been used to legitimize numerous rebellions and insurgencies, all of which rallied around a Li Hong. These were particularly prevalent during the fifth century, and continues to appear until the Song dynasty. 
Maitreya (Sanskrit), Metteyya (Pāli), or Jampa (Tibetan), is foretold as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. In some Buddhist literature, such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he or she is referred to as Ajita Bodhisattva.
Maitreya is a bodhisattva who in the Buddhist tradition is to appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor of the historic Śākyamuni Buddha. The prophecy of the arrival of Maitreya references a time when the Dharma will have been forgotten on Jambudvipa. It is found in the canonical literature of all Buddhist sects (Theravāda,Mahāyāna, Vajrayāna), and is accepted by most Buddhists as a statement about an event that will take place when the Dharma will have been forgotten on Earth.