BURUSHASKI

Burushaski Primer – Let us read and write

The android keyboard (mobile) for the Orthography/script proposed and approved by Buruśo Ma(h)raka is approved by google review team. It is now live on Play Store. 

 Burushaski Girminas is latin/Roman based keyboard developed for Buruśo Mahraka, and it is available for free.

Burushaski Orthography

How to use the keyboard (Desktop)

How to use the keyboard on touch devices (tablets, phones)

The rules for writing is the same as the windows keyboard. 

dot + y =ý  for baý

dot + d = ḍ  for ḍadaṅ

dot+ s = ṣ     for ṣapik, baaṣ

dot +t =ț      for  țok, țiṅan

c + c = ć       for  ćakar

dot +c = c̣    for c̣uk 

dot + n =ṅ for  țiṅan

dot + g = ġ for  ćaġa, ġamu

~  + vowels = ĩ, ã, ũ, õ, ã 

Alternatively, you can press and hold for the unique characters to use. 

On the recommendation of my little daughter I have also added 4 smileys ( Press and hold the smiley face). This was not initially part of the plan.

For IOs users, there is another keyboard in the process or review, once approved it will be shared here.  

Click this link on your mobile to install or search Buruśaski Girminas in Play Store

https://keyman.com/keyboards/burushaski_girminas

+1 (416) 939-0818 – Quwat SUNNY

Typing characters with Burushaski Girminas Keyboard (Desktop)

For diacritic vowels with tilde, there is only one rule — on your keyboard press tilde (~) followed by your desired vowel.                         

Acute Vowels                ã       ẽ                                   ĩ                      õ                  ũ

Key Combinations

            ~   a     ~ e       ~ i       ~ o      ~ u

Please follow the key combinations for the extra Buruśaski characters. Most of the characters will preceed with /dot/, unless the dot has already been used in another rule. Only Ć and Ś have different rule. Ś will be the output of S + H and Ć will be the output of C + C.

In order to write just /sh/, you have to press s +h+h.

Output                      C̣                         Ć                Ġ                    Ḍ                 Ś

            Input  dot + C           C + C   dot + G           dot + D           s + h

Output                      Ṅ                        Ṭ                Ṭ                    Ẓ                  Ṣ

            Input  dot + N           dot + T           dot + Y           dot + Z           dot + S

For capitalization of the characters, use /Shif Key/ and then input the required key combinations.

How do you add voice to words?

The button is in the Home tab in the Voice group in the Ribbon. You will need a microphone, either a headset, earbuds or use the built-in microphone in your device. Then click on the Dictate button in the Ribbon and start talking. Magically your words appear.

Example: 

SPECIAL CHARACTERS/SYMBOLS – BURUSHASKI QAIDA

Á – á ; Ā – ā; C̣, Ć;  Ì- í ; É- é ; Ē- ē; Ú -ú; Ū- ŭ; Ó- ó ; Ō- ō;  Ḍ; Ď – ď;  Ẓ;  Ż – ż; Ŕ – ŕ; Ś; Ś; -ś ; Ġ – ġ; Ṅ, Ň – ň; Ȝ- ȝ; Ṭ, Ϯ- ϯ ; Ý – ý; Γ – γ.

A – a: Examples (click to listen); AMIN; AMIS; AMIŠ; AYAS; AY’AMAM; AY; API; APPI; AY ǦUNO MO NE SHANIE ǦUNO’ TSUM KE BIZ ÃR.

A’ – a’: Examples (click to listen). ÃJO; GÃR;THÃR; MÃR; ŠÃR;  ŠHÃR; CÃR.

Ã- ã : Examples (click to listen); ÃRÃM; ÃMXÃM; XUDÃ; SHÃR; SHÃRAR KACÃR.

I – i : Examples (click to listen). IL; IN; IRI`Γ; INJUKUŠ, HIŠ; FIŠ; XIŠ; LIŠ; CHIŠ; TIŠ.

I’ – i’: speaker high volume Examples (click to listen). I`L; I`RIMI; I`Y; HI`Š.

E – e : Examples: ETAS; ESAS; ES; EQUWAS; EQULANAS; EWARAS; EWALAS.

E’ – e’ : Examples (click to listen). ĚMANAS; ĚWARAS; ĚŠ IYAS; ĚMANAS HILES; ĚWARAS HIR; ĚŠYAS XUK.

Ě – ě : Examples (click to listen). ĚMANAS; ĚWARAS; ĚSIRUS; THARĚS ĚWARAS KE BĚ ĚMULTSAS KE BĚ.

U – u : Examples: U; UYUM K KO; ULUM; UMUR; URKAR  ŹAKUN I’RUS GAR SENAN; UXÛYAYAS.

U’ – u’ : Examples (click to listen). U’; U’MUTS; U’MUS; U’Š ; U’S; U’YAR.

Û – û : Examples (click to listen). 

O -o : Examples (click to listen). OS; GOS; BOS; XOR; THOR; TSHORDIMO TSHOR DIYE.

O’ – o’ : Examples (click to listen). O’S; GO’R; TSHO’R; BO’R; GO’R GÃRSHIBI 

Õ – õ : Examples (click to listen). ÕS; GÕR; MÕR; MÕR JU’E; ÕS KE GÕR DU’SHI

B – b: Examples (click to listen). BÊ ; BII3; BIŠ ; BARAYITIΓ ; BÕT; BÕŠ  ; BUK; BUL; BUN; BUWA; BUŠAY ; WAZIIIRE BUŠAY; AYAR BÕT ETAS  BA’ ;BUŠAY ULO  BO’Š NIBILA; BUK AXOLJIBI; BUL GARU’RU’M BILA; BUN IFALT; BUA DALENUM DILTAR TSHILΓÛUM; BALDA; BUŠAY BUŠAYE CAQ KE THUM.

P -p : Examples (click to listen). PUŠO’M ; PIPI ; POQ ; PIRǦARI ; PUŠOΓOR ; PADÃRAN ; PIAQMAR ; YURǦALIMUTSE IDIGARI PIRǦALI MUTS  BIYE ; CHÛSHIE PUŠUΓOR ; BUŠAY PADÃRAN MANILA.

T -t : Examples (click to listen). TUS ; TUSHPOŤ ; TASHPI ; TUSPOR ; TABAN  TILIYA  ; TAǦAR ; TAKAL ; GÛY’Ě    TUSAR GUWALŠ ; TUSHPOŤ  MAN ; TASHPI MUJURE DIWSHÃN ; TUSHPORE ŤAŤAS FAMERULO BI ; TAǦARAR UŤIN ; TAKAL  DIL.

TH – th : Examples (click to listen). THAM ; THUM ;THUR ; THER ; THUKI ; THALY  ; THARKÕ  ; THIL ; THALISA ;  ǦUNIKIŠ  DIMANUM   XÃNDANE THUKI BAY ;THALYÕ SHASKE  ǦAŠKOE YASHICÃN ;HUNTSE THARKÕΓ  GATSHIRE SIΓE MEY BITSAΓ  ; DAN KE LIP THARKÕΓ  KE LIP ; TARMUKE THIL BAŤE BILA ; THALISA BU’R

Ť – ť : Examples (click to listen). ŤAŤU; ŤUSKÛRI; ŤU’RO; TORO; ŤUKORO; ŤIKERI; ŤUKTSE; ŤUΓRO; ŤU’RO ISARUME ŠBAŠ API, IXARUME ŤHUKI API; BALIE ŤIKERI; GAPE ŤIKO; ŤUNΓRO  ǦUNIKIŠ BUY’A.

TH -th : Examples (click to listen). THARII THAM; THAK, THIR NIIN MATHIR DITSAS BESAN? DAN NIIN TILI DITSAS DÃ BESAN

J – j : Examples (click to listen). JUW N; JA ; JO ; JUT; JURUT; JULUSTO; JUM; JURO; JURKHUS;  RAS SISE JURUT DUMARCAY; GARONI JULUSTO MANUBO; IN HIR JUMGUYN BAY; IN JURKHUS BAY; ASE JANJÃLIΓ AXOLJITSAΓ.

C -c : Examples (click to listen). CIICAM; CE’L ; CAΓ ; CAMAQ ;GIRMINAS  ATANASAR CIICAM E ; HAR DUROULO CE’ L AYE; SIS CAΓ AYOTI; SHERMAN D S CHAMAQE GA  RIMI.

CH – ch: Examples (click to listen: CHÛSHI; CHAŠ  ; CHAǦEN; CHEMILΓ ;CHAMURIKI; CHAMUS; CHURKAS; CHAKENIMIΓ ; CHUSHIE  ǦALǦU; CHAŠ DIŠ KIYAŠULO KE HIRUM;  ǦÃNE CHAP SHECI CHAǦENE ICHODU BÃRDUM; CHEMILI E MESQAYBI; HANIE DEL TSE CHAMURIKIE;;  BURUM   E BATERE CHAMUS MILI BILA; CHURKAS  RUE SHUA MEYBI; GUTSI CHAKENIMIΓ AYÃ ; CHIǦKINAS.

H – h: Exa26mples (click to listen: HAPKUYN; HORKO ; HAMAL; HOL; HUNTS; HUNAM; HUMAK; HI`Ś  ; HIIŚ ; HUŚ ; HÛŚ  ; HURUŤUME HIK DIYE ME THA  ŚIQAR SENÃN; HUNZE HUMAKULO  O’S; HUNAM TALOQULO  O’S; HOL MOĠUL B Y; HIŚ KE AYE; HIIŚ AYETI; HALAR BAT   ĠAKAT; HALE DARUAR TÃ  SAMÃN E SENÃN.

X -x: Examples (click to listen:   XUDÃ; XÃM  ; XURÃPO; XIR; XI`R; XERTS; XURTS; XAP; XÃR; XUDÃ DAMAN BAY; YARKENE XÃM BILA; XURÃP GUYO MU’ APÃN; XIRAYĚTSO; XIIR Ě  CILA; MALTAŚE XERTS; MART DO’RUMAŤE XURTS; XAP CAMAQ; SINDAXAR; XARǦENIŚ; 

D – d : Examples (click to listen: DUL; DAN; DAΓ ; DUR; DAR; DAĠU; DIRAM; DIWÃKO; DIWALOK; DAR BILUM DARU; HUN KE DAĠU; DIW KUMO BARAYIŤIΓ ;DURAŤE WALAY; DIGASHÃR.

Ď – ď : Examples (click to listen:  ḌAR;  ḌIR;  ḌAKO;  ḌU ḌU’RO; DUKURI;  ḌÃKI;  ḌÃMAL;  ḌAḌAΓ ;  ḌAḌAΓAR NUPARAN NAŤ SENAN.

Z -z : Examples (click to listen: ZAZAΓ; ZAZAΓIŠ; ZANΓSA; ZANQAN; ZARANΓ;HAĠUR ZAZAΓ AYE; JAMIPE BALDAKIŚ KE GUYMO ZAZAΓIŚ SENĀN; ZAΓSA IXAT CHANUM BILA; QARABURA; ZARΓE FATAMUTS YARKEN KE QASHQAR TSUM DUSHAN.

Ź – ź: Examples (click to listen: ŻAKUN; ŻAMAE; ŻAPA; ŻAPAK; ŻAKUN ÌRAS URKAR GAR SENĀN; ŻAME APIMANAR  IQAR API SENĀN; ŻAPAK SHE ATUCHA ALCHILA.

R – r : Examples (click to listen: RAMUTO; RÓM ;  RĀ31; RAQPIN; RAQ; RAQPINE TSAMIKAR RAQ.

Ř – ř: Examples (click to listen: GUR

TS – ts : Examples (click to listen: TSAR; TSAΓKOR; TSAR SHIKĀRIMUTSULO HURUSHAM TSAΓKORE HIMALTARIΓULO RA3 ECAM.

TSH – tsh : Examples (click to listen: TSHIL; TSHAR; TSHAN; TSHAN DAROĠO TSHILE KE ETSUCI

3 – 3 : Examples (click to listen); 3ON3; 3A3ÃL; 3AR; A3O; A3OKÕN.

3H – 3h : Examples (click to listen: 3HUR; 3HARNAĠE; 3HARKIŚ; 3HIN; 3HÁY; 3HINE YÉSH CHAŚATE; 3HITO

S – s : Examples (click to listen: SIΓ; SIΓGE; SIΓAS; SUKUSAKA; SABO; SAR TALEN TALEN; MON YĀRAR;  SIΓE ITSIYATE HAL  ϮAM JUWAN; SIΓGE MINAS AYETUM HALE MINAS MENE ECĀN; SAWĒNE BAR BILA.

SH – sh : Exples (click to listen: SHON; SHUNDURI; SHINDAQ; SHAMÁL; SHABAQ; SHAΓ;  SHĒ YANTS; SHON NIIN DAROĠOTSE ĠAÝU NIIN BALTSE; JE SIRGĀNE KE SHUNĎURI MADĀLE.

Ś – š: Examples (click to listen: ŚAPIK; ŚAŚAΓ; ŚAROΓ; ŚAWĒR; ŚUŚ RO; ŚAR TSUM KE GALTAR SENĀN.

F -f : Examples (click to listen: PHAMOL; PHAL; PHĒRO; PHIRAN; PHURUKI; PHURKA; PHRUKUS; PHAMONTSAL

Q -q : Examples (click to listen: QARALI; QAN3;QAM; QAMTU; QANJAQA; ;  ŻAKUNE QA Γ PHARIŚ E QAT ECHIBI

K – k : Examples (click to listen: KIIKI; KIŚ EK; KUR; KUMEK; KURPA; KIRPA; KECHIKICH ĀLI; KARMIN. KARMUN

KH – kh : Examples (click to listen: KHON; KHIN; KHISFIN; KHISHO; KHOR;KHORAN; KHARO; BAϮERI Γ E KHOR; MANOTE KHORAN;  HĀ KHARÓ; ĠENŚIE TARAZUMUTSE KHARÓ

G – g : Examples (click to listen: GAR; GÁR; GÓN; GÓR; GAYAL ; GIKIN; GAYMÁLÌ; GURKON; GARMUN; GIRGIN; GARULO JUWAR JUWARULO GÁR SENĀN.

Ǧ – ǧ: Examples (click to listen: ĠUϮ ; ĠASHIL; ĠAMES; GUYAΓ ; ĠUMALDI; ĠU UL; ĠON; ĠUN; ĠULAM ;ĠIIN; ĠIINE ĠIYKI SARKE; ĠUNULO GUWALUM; ĠARBEL KE YAN AR; HAĠUR

L – l : Examples (click to listen: LAŚO; LALUM; LAL; LŌNȜ; LAMPAGIYAL.

M – m: Examples (click to listen: MAMA; MAMU; MUK; MURMU ; MARMA ; MARMAQ; MARUTS; MUL ; MULIIŚ; MEŚ; MĒNASHŚ; MARU; MARUTS; MUL; MUŚ; MALA; MULIIŚ GALIMI; DISHAR NUPARAN MEŚ BISHA;MARU MARUTSE DURO BILA; IN BAP CHAP TSUM MALA BAY.

N – n : Examples (click to listen: NASH; NÁSH; NARO; NAMÁL; NARSIΓ ; NÁΓ

Ñ – ñ: Examples (click to listen:  ŚŪŇ ; KŪŇ KŪŇ; ŪŇ; HUKE  ĠŪŇ   ĠŪŇ ECIBI. JAHĀZE RŪŇ RŪŇ ECIBI.

Γ – γ: Examples (click to listen: Gaγi; Guγgi; Aγi; Aγgi; Daγal; Haγ ; Fuγ .

W – w: Examples (click to listen: WAR; WAŚ; WAϮ; WĀ ; WĀ KUWLO TSAT MANE.

Y – y: Examples (click to listen: YÁΓ; YÚTO; YURT; YÚŚ; YURĠOL; YESH; YURĠALIMUTS; YARAQ; YARĀQ; YÚRO; YÁLI; GARE YÚRO BILA; GIRMINASE AYÁLI BILA; YĀLI API.

Examples (click to listen: BURUSHASKI BĀŚE HARPUTS FAŚ MANIMIYEN.

RESEARCH- CAK

Culture Area Karakorum Research Project in the Northern Areas, Pakistan: proceedings of the Pak-German Joint Workshop on …. held on 1-3 Dec 1991 at Lahore, Pakistan

Scientific Studies

Series edited by: Irmtraud Stellrecht.

The Culture Area Karakorum Scientific Studies’ series presents, in English or German, selected results of research being conducted in the high mountain regions of the Karakorum, Hindukush, and the Himalayas, in Pakistan and in the adjoining countries. The research project was sponsored by the German Research Foundation (DFG) from 1989 to 1998. Its interdisciplinary approach involving cultural and environmental sciences offers the opportunity to arrive at a deeper understanding of the relationship between the high mountain environment, man and culture as well as on the changes occurring in the past and present.

The series has been completed by volume 12.

Hermann Kreutzman (ed.). Karakoram in Transition: Culture, Development and Ecology in the Hunza Valley. Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan. 2006. 500 pp. INR 895 (Hardcover). ISBN 0-19-547210-1.

Since the late nineteenth century, the Hunza valley has been the subject of much academic and popular writing. British administrators were intrigued by this region due to its strategic location at the northern frontier of their empire, which had to be guarded against the advancing Russians in the ‘great game’ of imperial rivalry. Traversing the majestic peaks and glaciers at this frontier, discovering and describing its uncharted terrains, and investigating the racial and cultural connotations of why the main language of its inhabitants (burushaski) was a linguistic isolate, all added to the mystique of Hunza for Western explorers. Today, the Hunza valley forms a major tourist hub in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, and continues to pique the interest of travelers with images of the ancient silk route, rare wildlife species, the famed longevity of its dwellers, and of course, its breathtaking landscapes.

In the last three decades, the political and socio-economic landscape of Hunza valley has been significantly transformed by a variety of factors including the opening of the Karakoram highway, the abolition of princely kingdoms leading to more direct control by the Pakistani state, increase in donor-funded development projects and the marketisation of the economy. Such processes of change have been extensively studied by a collective of mostly German researchers under the ‘Culture Area Karakoram’ (CAK) project[1]. The edited volume under review continues this focus on ‘transition’, and includes articles by several authors who were associated with the CAK project. Hence, it reads like a continuation of this project even though it is not presented as such.

  1.  ‘environment and resources’ : In his article on Hunza glaciers, Kenneth Hewitt attends to a timely concern by exploring the links between glacial processes, natural hazards and climate change. Hewitt argues that since the 1920s, there has been a general reduction in the ice cover in the Hunza basin as well as in the incidence of large ice dams and outburst floods. At the same time, there have also been periods in which several large ice masses have thickened. 
  2. Apart from chapters on glaciers, the first section also includes one article each on Hunza’s vegetation, wildlife and forests. The article on Hunza forests by Udo Schickhoff is particularly insightful, as it draws upon the science, history and politics of forest use in the Hunza valley to provide a rich, interdisciplinary analysis of forest degradation in the region. 
  3. The next section on ‘history and memory’ is exciting in its variety of subject as well as method. Everyday tales, local songs, colonial photographs and rock inscriptions are some of the objects that are employed for historical inquiry, to answer a range of questions: for example how do the historical and the mythical fuse together in oral accounts of the past, or, how can changes in the physical and cultural landscape of a place be captured through the act of reading old photographs alongside contemporary ones.
  4. Similarly, Irmtraud Stellrecht challenges Sidky’s[2] famous thesis that political centralisation in the Hunza state was primarily achieved through the construction of irrigation channels and subsequent control over newly cultivated lands by the ruling Mirs. Instead, he compellingly argues that a decisive external factor which enabled state formation in Hunza was the rising political significance of the passage to Central Asia, as it created conditions in which the Mirs could take advantage of ‘route politics’ for consolidating their power. Moreover, as Stellrecht emphasises, the history of princely statehood in Hunza also needs to take into account less emphasised internal factors such as the ‘marital politics’ of the Hunza Mirs through which political alliances were forged and loyalties secured.
  5. Another interesting contribution in this section is a chapter by Beate Reinhold, which provides a discussion of linguistic transition in the upper Hunza region of Gojal. The Gojali language of Wakhi has attracted significant academic attention in recent years, with the result that Wakhi vocabulary, grammar and oral traditions are fairly well documented. However, as Reinhold points out, less attention has been paid to how Wakhi is spoken in everyday life, particularly by women. She goes on to analyse how linguistic habits and preferences are changing in the contemporary context of migration and modern education in Gojal.
  6. Hermann Kreutzmann-who is also the editor of the volume-provides a comprehensive analysis of how the agricultural and pastoral economy of Hunza has changed over the last seventy years. His article is rich in archival research as well as ethnographic detail, and like Schickhoff’s article on forest degradation discussed earlier, illuminates an understanding of agricultural science, history, political economy and social relations in unique and compelling ways. We learn that animal husbandry in the Hunza region was of tremendous importance historically, as grazing taxes in the form of livestock and their products constituted a chief source of revenue for the Hunza state, and were thus critical for its sustenance. This gave a measure of power to affluent nomadic communities in upper Hunza, and also resulted in frequent conflicts between communities and the Hunza Mir over the control of pastures. 
  7. The final section on ‘culture and development’ is different from the other sections in at least two ways. First, it includes articles not just by academics, but also by practitioners who have been actively involved in key development projects in the Hunza valley. Second, it also includes perspectives from local researchers, not just foreign ones. Both these factors bring a refreshing diversity to the volume.
  8. Thematically, there is a prominent focus on the built heritage of Hunza in this section, and particularly on the work of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC). Stefano Bianca’s article, for example, elaborates how the AKTC has sought to unite concerns of culture as well as development, by undertaking the conservation of monuments, village settlements and public spaces in Hunza with the participation and ownership of local communities. The work of AKTC has enhanced local awareness about managing urban sprawl, and also led to a revitalisation of traditional building techniques.

As a member on AKCSP Board 1996-1999, upgraded the house as a model residence for present age living essentials – for emulation as a living example.

The preface of Karakoram in Transition mentions that it is particularly aimed at the ‘young generation of students and scientists in Pakistan and in the Northern Areas in particular as a basis for further research efforts’ (p. vii). In this, it surely succeeds as it provides an excellent index of current research on the Hunza valley.

Stellrecht, I. (ed.). 1997. Perspectives on History and Change in the Karakoram, Hindukush, and Himalaya. Culture Area Karakorum Scientific Studies Köln, Köppe, Germany; and Stellrecht, I. (ed.). 1998. Karakorum-Hindukush-Himalaya: Dynamics of Change. Culture Area Karakorum Scientific Studies Köln, Köppe, Germany.

Publications – numbering twelve volumes – are available in the BHT library for reading by all interested. 

  • Volume 12
  • Cultural Analysis of Politics, Law and Religion in Pakistan
  • Author: Muhammad Azam Chaudhary.
  • In 2007, three major political events rocked Pakistan
  • – the Chief Justice of Pakistan was suspended by then Army Chief / President of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf
  • – Pakistani authorities cracked down on the “Red Mosque” in Islamabad, resulting in hundreds of lives lost
  • – former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto returned from exile, only to be killed weeks before national election
  • These three cases are interwoven within law, religion and politics in Pakistan. Much has been written about them and these writings mainly focus on technical, legal, and political aspects of these events, and the points of reference chosen are mainly those of “democracy” (particularly Western notions of democracy), or international dimensions like the interest and involvement of the USA in Pakistan, the so-called fight against terrorism, etc.
  • All these dimensions are no doubt important at their places for understanding politics, law and religion in Pakistan, but it is the author’s assertion that politics, law and religion cannot be understood without understanding the culture of the people or country concerned. Similarly, he is of the view that politics, law and religion are interconnected and that culture provides the life line between them, and thus for a proper understanding of either of these three fields, a prerequisite is to examine the vital role played by the indigenous culture.
  • This much-needed cultural analysis of politics, law and religion in Pakistan has not been previously undertaken. This book intends to make its own contribution to this area of scholarship hoping that it will be followed by more research in these areas.
  • About the author:
  • From 2008 onwards, Dr. Muhammad Azam Chaudhary is Professor at the National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad/Pakistan.
  • Author: Katrin Gratz.
  • The present ethnographical work is the result of a long term field research in North Pakistan. More than one and a half year the author participated in everyday life of two families in Gilgit, a dynamic and rapidly changing town in the Karakorum Mountains. Against the background of rigid Muslim sex-segregation she describes the everyday chores of the women and girls, their limited mobility and their – often conflict-riddled – interactions in the family and neighbourhood. The spacial confinements of the female life-world, its rootedness in the domestic daily life, and the outsized meaning of kin relations become apparent.
  • At the same time the book shows how actively women and girls deal with the potentialities and dangers of their changing living conditions. Aspects which too often remain neglected, because women act in secrecy or because they are considered powerless and passive to begin with, are specifically taken into account. Thus the work is on the one hand an ethnography of the “small things”, the everyday acts and encounters. On the other hand the author worked out essential structural principles determining everyday female life. These principles are not restricted to North Pakistan but applicable to large parts of the country as well as to Afghanistan and other regions of the Muslim world. Numerous elaborate diagrams illustrate these basic structures.
  • The domain of family and household – womens’ primary sphere of influence – are still regarded as hardly accessible in the ethnography of Pakistan, and are therefore largely neglected. In contrast, the author shows that it is quite feasible for a female researcher to be admitted to households and to monitor Pakistani family life – provided she is ready to pay the price: she has to give up the privileged role of the researcher; she has to accept that, once “inside”, the research no longer proceeds at her discretion. And she has to face the fact that her methods turn out to be incompatible with the subject of the research. This specific research situation – thoroughly analysed in the introduction – has left its mark: the author avoids an all too scientific vocabulary, the references to scholarly debates remain implicit, and the rendering is rather unconventional.
  • Thus, Verwandtschaft, Geschlecht und Raum is also an experiment in ethnographical writing. The author tries to transfer as much of the original ethnographical experience as possible into the text. The mere fragmentation of experience und its subjugation to professional and representational interests is being complemented by the very power of the experienced life itself. Quotations from the author’s field diaries permeate the text. As a result the experiencing subject is integrated into the text without being the focus of attention. For students this book provides valuable insights into the process of field research, its richness of experience, and the different levels of ethnographical analyses and evaluation – in the field as well as at the writing desk back home.
  • Volume 10
  • Frauen und Feen
  • Author: Maria Marhoffer-Wolff.
  • Shamanism is a classical topic of anthropological research. The present book deals with a hitherto rather unknown form of shamanism in North Pakistan, i.e. the special relationship between fairies (parí) and women. Those fairies are depicted as female entities, who belong to a world of spiritual purity and bliss. They often possess young women called mómalas, who receive religious treatment to rid them of the intruder, but a few of these women cannot be healed and develop into spiritual media between the physical world and the world of the fairies. When their possession is cultivated, a mómala can call her parí for prophesying purposes.
  • The author spent 20 months of field study in the Yasin valley of North Pakistan (1989–1991) on ethno-medical research in the context of an interdisciplinary research project concerning the relationship between humans, environment and culture in North Pakistan. During her stay she became aware of the existence of the mómalas and began to focus on the influence of fairies on the lives of these women.
  • The discussions with the mómalas and their social environment resulted in a collection of empirical reports, self-descriptions, accounts of narrative situations, local and emic stories, as well as appraisals by others. With her book, the author breaks new ground in this traditionally male dominated ethnological field of study in North Pakistan, gaining intimate access to the otherwise closely guarded women of Pakistani society.
  • Reviews
  • […] the author’s method of discussing indigenous world views on possession in Yasin without any recourse to sociological or psychological explanations provides an array of insights which would have been lost, had she clung to the current anthropological approaches. Her“multi-perspective approach”, taking into consideration both the female perspective of the mómalas and the male perspective of the xalífa, not only meets an important methodological demand in anthropology, but also reveals the existence of conflicting discourses on the phenomenon. Marhoffer-Wolff shows, among other things, that even in a male-dominated society, as is the case in the Yasin Valley, women have been agents resisting male efforts to“cure” them from their“fairy illness” for a considerable period of time.
  • Elisabeth Schömbucher in European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, 25/26, 2003/2004, 227-229
  • Volume 9
  • Rechtspluralismus in den Northern Areas / Pakistan
  • Author: Sabine Lentz.
  • The present study focuses on law and legal pluralism in the Northern Areas
  • Volume 7
  • Freundschaft und Macht
  • Author: Wiegand Jahn.
  • Indus Kohistan is a region on both sides of the Indus Canyon in the Pakistani North West Frontier Province which was integrated in the Pakistani political system as a district during the construction of the Karakorum Highway in 1976. The population consists of various language, territory and descent groups, of which the latter are allocated in turn to distinct status groups. Shin is the term for descent groups of high status and prestige who constitute the well-defined majority of the population in most parts of Kohistan.
  • The present analysis is limited to the relations between agents and groups of the Shin. The majority of the 600.000 people living in Indus Kohistan have their residences in the Indus tributary valley and live on traditional subsistence economy: agriculture and highland pasture farming. 
  • Volume 6
  • Mountain Societies in Transition
  • Edited by: Andreas Dittmann. With contributions by: Jürgen Clemens, Andreas Dittmann, Eckart Ehlers, Reinhard Fischer, Hiltrud Herbers [show more…].
  • CONTENTS
  • Andreas Dittmann:
  • Foreword
  • Jürgen Clemens:
  • Rural Development in Northern Pakistan – Impacts of the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme
  • Eckart Ehlers:
  • Sustainability – Indigenous Knowlegde Systems and Traditional Land Uses. The Northern Areas of Pakistan as an Example
  • Fazlur-Rahman:
  • Community Organizations and Management of Natural Resources in the Northern Areas of Pakistan – A Study of Astor Valley
  • Reinhard Fischer:
  • Village – Valley – Nation. Integrating Mountain Communities into a Nationstate
  • Hiltrud Herbers:
  • Undernutrition and Heavy Workload in Northern Pakistan – Consequences for Production and Reproduction
  • Arnd Holdschlag:
  • Chitral – A Society between Irrigation, Isolation, and Migration – Some Observations from Lower Chitral and Tehsil Thorko
  • Hermann Kreutzmann:
  • Geolinguistic Variegation in the Eastern Hindukush and Karakoram
  • Claudia Polzer / Matthias Schmidt:
  • The Transformation of Political Structure in Shigar Valley / Baltistan
  • Matthias Schmidt:
  • The Utilization of Mountain Forests in the Bagrot Valley
  • Georg Stöber:
  • Structural Change and Domestic Agriculture in Yasin
  • Andreas Dittmann / Fazlur-Rahman / Arnd Holdschlag:
  • Chitral – Urban Development and Traditional Bazaar Structures
  • Volume 5
  • Transformation of Social and Economic Relationships in Northern Pakistan
  • Edited by: Irmtraud Stellrecht, Hans-Georg Bohle. With contributions by: Hans-Georg Bohle, Christoph Dittrich, Benno Pilardeaux, Irmtraud Stellrecht, Martin Sökefeld.
  • The central aspect of this volume is the interaction between the high-mountain region of northern Pakistan and the political and economic centres of the adjoining lowlands. The contributions by cultural anthropologists and cultural geographers describe the transformation of this interrelation between highlands and lowlands that has been taking place since the 19th century. Moreover, the innovations and the process of change arising from new forms of communication and transport introduced by the opening of the Karakorum Highway are studied from the current as well as the historical perspective.
  • CONTENTS
  • Irmtraud Stellrecht:
  • Trade and Politics – The High-Mountain Region of Pakistan in the 19th and 20th Century
  • Martin Sökefeld:
  • “The People Who Really Belong to Gilgit“ – Theoretical and Ethnographical Perspectives on Identity and Conflict
  • Hans-Georg Bohle:
  • Introductory Remarks – People at Risk: Geographical Contributions on Agrarian Change and Vulnerability in the Karakorum
  • Christoph Dittrich:
  • High-Mountain Food Systems in Transition – Food Security, Social Vulnerability and Development in Northern Pakistan
  • Benno Pilardeaux:
  • Surviving as a Mountain Peasant – Innovation, Development and the Dynamics of Global Change in a High-Mountain Region (Punial/Northern Pakistan)
  • Volume 4.I + 4.II
  • Karakorum – Hindukush – Himalaya
  • Edited by: Irmtraud Stellrecht. With a preface by: Irmtraud Stellrecht. With contributions by: Tor Aase, Shafeeq Ahmad, Yuri Badenkov, Zhang Baiping, Elena Bashir [show more…].
  • This two-volume edition consists of papers presented by scientists from several countries during the international, interdisciplinary symposium Karakorum – Hindukush – Himalaya. Dynamics of Change, held in Islamabad/ Pakistan in 1995. This symposium was organized by the coordinators of the Culture Area Karakorum research project, sponsored by the German Research Foundation (DFG). Central to the contributions by environmental, cultural and social scientists to this volume are the continuously-changing relationships between man, culture and environment in the high-mountain regions of the Karakorum, Pamir, Hindukush and Himalaya.
  • CONTENTS:
  • Part I
  • Irmtraud Stellrecht: Foreword
  • A. Processes of Landscape Formation
  • Kenneth Hewitt: Himalayan Indus Streams in the Holocene – Glacier-, and Landslide-‘Interrupted’ Fluvial Systems
  • Matthias Kuhle: The Ice Age Glaciation of East-Pamir (36º40’–39º10′ N/74º40’–76º10′ E)
  • Sigrid Meiners: Preliminary Results Concerning Historic to Post-Glacial Glacier Stages in the NW-Karakorum (Hispar Muztagh, Batura Muztagh, Rakaposhi Range)
  • Lasafam Iturrizaga: Preliminary Results of Field Observations on the Typology of Post-Glacial Debris Accumulations in the Karakorum and Himalaya Mountains
  • B. Vegetation and Climate
  • Sabine Miehe / Georg Miehe: Vegetation Patterns as Indicators of Climatic Humidity in the Western Karakorum
  • Zheng Du: A Comparative Study on the Altitudinal Belts in the Karakorum Mountains
  • Jens-Peter Jacobsen: Investigations into the Vertical Temperature and Precipitation Gradients in Two Test Areas in Northern Pakistan (Yasin and Bagrot)
  • Uwe Schmidt / Gerald Braun: Remote Sensing and GIS Applications for Phytoecological Modelling in a High Mountain Environment (Hunza-Karakorum, Northern Areas of Pakistan)
  • Aleem Ahmed Khan / Rafiq Ahmed Rajput: The Biodiversity of the Deosai Plateau, Baltistan, Northern Areas, Pakistan
  • Wu Sugong / Yang Yongping / Fei Yong: Flora of the Alpine Region of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau
  • Fei Yong: Medicinal Plants in the Kunlun and Karakorum Mountains (Chinese Part)
  • Yang Yongping / Wu Sugong: Notes on the Chromosome Numbers of Alpine Plants of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
  • Firdaus-e-Bareen / Syed H. Iqbal: Riparian Vegetation and Freshwater Fungal Flora of some Lakes in the Northern Areas
  • Firdaus-e-Bareen / Syed H. Iqbal: The Longitudinal Distribution Patterns of Freshwater Hyphomycetes along some Mountain Streams in the Northern Areas
  • Syed H. Iqbal / Firdaus-e-Bareen: Snow Group Hyphomycetes of the Karakorum Range
  • C. Environmental Risks and Utilization of Resources
  • Mohammad Said: Natural Hazards of Shigar Valley, Northern Areas of Pakistan
  • Irina Alekseevna Merzliakova: Environmental Hazards (Hait Earthquake) and Administrative Pressure for Resource Utilization (Pamiro-Alai Case Study)
  • Udo Schickhoff: Socio-Economic Background and Ecological Effects of Forest Destruction in Northern Pakistan
  • Parveen Daud Kamal / M. Jamal Nasir: The Impact of the Karakoram Highway on the Landuse of the Northern Areas
  • Marcus Nüsser: Animal Husbandry and Fodder Requirements around Nanga Parbat, Northern Areas, Pakistan – Recent and Historical Perspectives of Human-Ecological Relationships
  • Chiranjivi Sharma / Janardan B. Khatri Chhetri: Slash-and-Burn Agriculture in the Mount Makalu Range of Nepal
  • David Butz: Orientalist Representations of Resource Use in Shimshal, Pakistan, and their Extra-Discursive Effects
  • Joëlle Smadja / Monique Fort: Research on Diversity, Origin, and Evolution of Himalayan Nepalese Landscapes
  • Zahid Javed Janjua: Tradition and Change in the Darel and Tangir Valleys
  • D. Hydropower and Energy Supply
  • Juan José Victoria: Hydropower – An Energy Source for the Northern Areas of Pakistan
  • Kim Gutschow: Hydro-Logic in the Northwest Himalaya – Several Case Studies From Zangskar
  • Jürgen Clemens: Problems and Limitations of Rural Energy Supply in Mountainous Regions of Northern Pakistan – A Case Study on the Astor Tahsil and the Northern Areas
  • E. Processes of Settlement
  • Andreas Dittmann: Dynamics of Urban Development in Baltistan
  • Reinhard Fischer: The History of Settlement in Punial, Northern Areas of Pakistan, in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
  • Christian Kleinert: The Impact of Tourism and Development on Houses and Settlement in the Kali Gandaki Valley (Central Nepal)
  • Charles Ramble / Christian Seeber: Investigations in Northern Mustang/Nepal 1995 – Dead and Living Settlements in the Shöyul Area
  • Niels Gutschow: Why Was it so Dark in Kak? From Darkness to Light – Thoughts about a Process of Change in Housebuilding in the Northern Himalaya
  • John Harrison: A Brief Introduction to the Architecture of the Kalasha, Chitral
  •  
  • Part II
  • Irmtraud Stellrecht: Foreword
  • F. Highland-Lowland Routes and Relationships
  • Irmtraud Stellrecht: Economic and Political Relationships between Northern Pakistan and Central as well as South Asia in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
  • Hermann Kreutzmann: Trans-Montane Exchange Patterns Prior to the Karakoram Highway
  • Haruko Tsuchiya: Field Research along the Ancient Routes in the Northern Areas of Pakistan (1991–1995)
  • Mhammad Anwar Khan: A Perspective on the Relationship between Pakistan and Central Asia after the Break-Up of the Former Soviet Union
  • Zhang Baiping: Recent Studies on the Northern Sino-Pakistan Highway Areas with a Proposal for the Northward Extension of the CAK Project
  • G. Development – Strategies and Conflict
  • Jack D. Ives: The Himalayan Dilemma Reconsidered
  • Tor Aase: Politics of Natural Resource Management in the Sai Valley, Gilgit District
  • Daniel J. Miller / George B. Schaller: Rangeland Dynamics in the Chang Tang Wildlife Reserve, Tibet
  • Antje Linkenbach: Forest Protection and Concepts of Development in the Garhwal Himalayas – People’s Perspectives
  • Shekhar Pathak: State, Society and Natural Resources in the Himalaya: Dynamics of Change in Colonial and Post-Colonial Uttarakhand
  • Yuri Badenkov: Mountain Tajikistan – A Model of Conflictory Development
  • Jürgen Clemens / Ruth Göhlen / Roland Hansen: Dialogues on the Development Process in Astor Valley – Insiders’ and Outsiders’ Perceptions and Experiences
  • Ulrike Müller-Böker: Wild Animals and Poor People – Conflicts between Conservation and Human Needs in Chitawan (Nepal)
  • Sudibya Kanti Khisa: Upland Settlement Programme within a Rubber-Based Agroforestry Farming System – A Sustainable Development Initiative for the Tribal Communities of Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh
  • Shafeeq Ahmad / Umar Farooq: The Environmental Impacts of Coal Mining in the Punjab, Pakistan
  • H. Historical Dynamics
  • Muhammad Ayaz Khan: The Resonance of Gandhara Culture in Mansehra District of Hazara Division
  • Mohammad Salim: Ancient Man in the Northern Areas of Pakistan
  • Wolfgang Holzwarth: Change in Pre-Colonial Times – An Evaluation of Sources on the Karakorum and Eastern Hindukush Regions (from 1500 to 1800)
  • Abdul Ghani Sheikh: Ladakh and Baltistan through the Ages
  • Harjit Singh: Economy, Society and Culture – Dynamics of Change in Ladakh
  • Nawang Tsering Shakspo: Ladakh’s Relations with Baltistan
  • Mohammad Ishaq Khan: Dynamics of Kashmiri Culture vis-à-vis Brahmanism and Islam – A Historical Perspective
  • I. Dimensions of Culture
  • Martin Sökefeld: On the Concept of “Ethnic Group”
  • Nejima Susumu: Diversity of Lineages in Ghizer, Northern Areas, Pakistan
  • Claudia Polzer: The Break-Up of Village Communities in the Context of Elections in Baltistan, Northern Areas, Pakistan
  • Monika Krengel: Dominant Clans and Ritualized Exchange – Tradition and Change in Kumaon/Himalaya
  • Muhammad Azam Chaudhary: Blood Feuds in Chilas, Past and Present
  • Ruth Göhlen: Mobility and Freedom of Decision-Making of Women in Astor Valley (Pakistan-Himalaya)
  • Katrin Gratz: Walking on Women’s Paths in Gilgit – Gendered Space, Boundaries, and Boundary Crossing
  • Sandra de Vries: Old People and Modern Life in the Shigar Valley of Baltistan (Northern Pakistan)
  • Maheshwar P. Joshi: Culture Constructed by Intellectualism and the Intellectualism of Culture – the Case of Central Himalaya
  • Elena Bashir: Prospects for Interdisciplinary International Research and Educational Development in Chitral
  • Saeed Ahmad Nagra: Nutritional Status of the Population in the Northern Areas of Pakistan
  • Muhammad Hassan Hasrat: Traditional Healing System and Introduction of Modern Biomedicine in Baltistan Language and Literary Tradition
  • Roland Bielmeier: Balti Tibetan in its Historical Linguistic Context
  • Inayatullah Faizi: Language as a Phenomenon of Social Change – Khowar in Laspur, Chitral (Pakistan)
  • Erhard Bauer: Several Groups of Pashto-Speakers in Pakistan’s Northern Areas – Different Ways of Dealing with Multilingual Surroundings (Preliminary Results of Field Research)
  • Fateh Mohammad Malik: Unity and Variety in the Sµf¡-Poetic Traditon – The Legacy of Bãbã Siãr
  • John Mock: The Cannibal King of Gilgit
  • Hugh van Skyhawk: Underground Music in Gilgit
  • Review by Agnieszka Kuczkiewicz-Fras, see the link below:
  • Volume 3
  • Perspectives on History and Change in the Karakorum, Hindukush, and Himalaya
  • Edited by: Irmtraud Stellrecht, Matthias Winiger. With contributions by: Muhammad Azam Chaudhary, Jürgen Clemens, Thomas Cramer, Andreas Dittmann, Christoph Dittrich [show more…].
  • The contributions to this proceedings volume emerged from an interdisciplinary workshop, held in April 1995, which brought together members of two high-mountain research projects supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation). Regionally, the focus was on northern Pakistan, India and Nepal. The main topic common to all participants was the dynamic aspect of the relationships between highlands and lowlands in the past and the present, and their impact in the high mountain regions on trade, population structure, ethnic and religious identity-forming processes as well as the use of the environment. In addition, this volume discusses the aspects and implementations of policies aimed at sustainable development in the Himalayan regions of Pakistan, India and Nepal.
  • CONTENTS
  • Dynamics of Highland-Lowland Interaction – Past and Present
  • Irmtraud Stellrecht:
  • Dynamics of Highland-Lowland Interaction in Northern Pakistan since the 19th Century
  • Christoph Dittrich:
  • Food Security and Vulnerability to Food Crises in the Northern Areas of Pakistan
  • Benno Pilardeaux:
  • Agrarian Transformation in Northern Pakistan and the Political Economy of Highland-Lowland Interaction
  • Thomas Hoffmann:
  • Historical Relations between Northeastern Nepal and its Indian and Nepalese Foreland, Exemplified by Migration from the Solu-Khumbu District
  • Rainer Graafen:
  • Trade and Trading Villages between Tibet and the Lowlands – The Districts of Mustang and Kaski
  • Christian G. Seeber:
  • The Current State of Research on Historical Development – Processes in the Area of Mustang/Lo. Questions Concerning the Crystallization, Decline and Foundation of States and Settlements
  • Identity Formation in the Context of Change
  • Martin Sökefeld:
  • Discourse and Action – Unequivocalness and Ambivalence in Identifications
  • Andreas Dittmann:
  • Central Goods and Ethno-Linguistic Groups in the Bazaars of Northern Pakistan – An Example of Central Place Theory Modifications in Mountainous Environments
  • Johannes H. Löhr:
  • History as a Social Practice – An Example from Northern Pakistan
  • Ulrike Müller-Böker:
  • Tharus and Pahariyas in Chitawan – Observations on the Multi-Ethnic Constellation in Southern Nepal
  • Monika Krengel:
  • Migration and the Danger of Loss – Some Aspects of Cultural Identity in Kumaon/Indian Himalaya
  • Thierry Dodin:
  • Transregional Buddhist Organizations in Indian Himalaya
  • Andreas Rieck:
  • From Mountain Refuge to “Model Area” – Transformation of Shi`i Communities in Northern Pakistan
  • Environmental Resources – Utilization and Present Exploitation
  • Jürgen Clemens / Marcus Nüsser:
  • Resource Management in Rupal Valley, Northern Pakistan – The Utilization of Forests and Pastures in the Nanga Parbat Area
  • Thomas Cramer:
  • Climatic Gradients in the Karakorum and their Effects on the Natural Vegetation
  • Udo Schickhoff:
  • Ecological Change as a Consequence of Recent Road Building – The Case of the High Altitude Forests of the Karakorum
  • Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt:
  • Stand Structure as an Indicator of Forest Change Due to Human Impact – A Methodological Contribution with Examples from Nepal and Northern Thailand
  • Environment under Pressure – Strategies in the Context of Change
  • Klaus Seeland:
  • Sociological Observations on “Community Forestry” in Nepal
  • Antje Linkenbach:
  • Social Struggle and Conflict of Interests in the Garhwal Forest
  • Susanne von der Heide:
  • Cultural Identity and Nature Conservation in Nepal. The Annapurna Conservation-Area Project – An Initiative Worth Imitating
  • Roland Hansen:
  • Remembering Hazards as “Coping Strategy” – Local Perception of the Disastrous Snowfalls and Rainfalls of September 1992 in Astor Valley, Northwestern Himalaya
  • Joanna Pfaff-Czarnecka:
  • Complex Communities in Nepal-Himalaya, or: “Solidarity” – A Global Category and a Way of Life
  • The Transformation of Himalayan“Life Worlds”
  • Sabine Lentz:
  • British Officers, Kashmiri Officials, Adultery and “Customary Law”
  • Hiltrud Herbers:
  • The Changing Position of Women in Northern Pakistan – From Agricultural Producers to Off-Farm Employees
  • Muhammad Azam Chaudhary:
  • Maruts – Gold-Washers of the Indus
  • Jürgen W. Frembgen:
  • English Loan Words in Burushaski as a Barometer of Cultural Change
  • Claus Peter Zoller:
  • Heroic Ballads and the Biography of a Woman – On Coping with Conflicts in the Western Garhwal Himalaya
  • Volume 2
  • The Past in the Present
  • Edited by: Irmtraud Stellrecht. With contributions by: Ruth Göhlen, Roland Hansen, Wolfgang Holzwarth, Johannes H. Löhr, Maria Marhoffer-Wolff [show more…].
  • In this volume, cultural anthropologists and Oriental scientists deal with the written and oral treatment of historical processes and experiences in northern Pakistan. The authors themselves experienced, during their longterm fieldwork in this region, the meaningfulness of the past in the contemporary life of the inhabitants of the high-mountain valleys. Experiences from pre-colonial times, lengthy processes of Islamization as well as the current encounter between traditional and modern lifestyles are the thematic focus of the papers.
  • CONTENTS
  • Irmtraud Stellrecht:
  • Writing Concerning the Past in Northern Pakistan – A Short Introduction
  • Wolfgang Holzwarth:
  • Islam in Baltistan – Problems of Research on the Formative Period
  • Andreas Rieck:
  • Who Are the Nurbakhshis? Controversy about the Identity of a Beleaguered Community in Baltistan
  • Martin Sökefeld:
  • Jang Azãd¡ – Perspectives on a Major Theme in Northern Areas’ History
  • Monika Schneid:
  • Identity, Power and Recollection – Inside and Outside Perspectives on the History of Bagrot, Northern Pakistan
  • Johannes H. Löhr:
  • Gender, Power, and Public Identity – Maintaining the Masculine Past
  • Maria Marhoffer-Wolff:
  • Family History as Legitimizing Strategy – The Thui Khal¡fa
  • Ruth Göhlen:
  • The Background of Genealogical Time Structuring and Remembering – Aspects of Time in Astor Valley, Northern Pakistan
  • Roland Hansen:
  • Demonic Sabotage – Corruption – Natural Hazard. Channel Breaks and the Manipulation of “Myth” in Astor Valley, Northern Pakistan
  • Volume 1
  • Bibliography – Northern Pakistan
  • Edited by: Irmtraud Stellrecht.
  • This bibliography on the high mountain region of Pakistan contains more than 5,000 titles in Western languages. Included are scientific inputs from different disciplines (physical and cultural geography, botany, cultural anthropology, ethnology, linguistics, Oriental and Islamic studies, history and archaeology), travel reports as well as unpublished manuscripts, especially from development organizations. The bibliography covers a time span between the second half of the 19th century right up to the 1990s. The titles are listed in alphabetical order and can easily be found by referring to the region and thematical index.
  • The majority of the titles having been provided by CAK project members whose research in northern Pakistan began in 1989. The range of interests of the main contributors and the focus of their research inevitably guided their selection of the literature, which in turn, has defined the thematic limits of this bibliography. Owing to the fact that earth sciences, such as geology, geophysics, geomorphology and glaciology, were not included in CAK research, we must state that the inclusion or omission of titles pertaining to these fields was a question of mere chance. It must be noted that a markedly contemporary and progressive accent is offered by the “grey literature” which includes material mainly intended for internal use in governmental or non-governmental agencies. The choice of “grey literature” was necessarily random, and the compilation is by no means comprehensive.
  • Reviews
  • This bibliography contains more than 4,000 entries covering the regions which now make up Pakistan’s Northern Areas and parts of North-West Frontier Province(NWFP). It will be an essential research tool for scholars working on these areas, and for Ladakh specialists looking for comparative material on the regions to the west.[…]

Political Action towards an Egalitarian Society

Political Action towards an Egalitarian Society

My proposal to all candidates contesting for a seat in legislative assembly in GB:

I hope you concentrate on legislation to result in establishment of DISTRICT and VILLAGE governments in GB as a replication of what PTI has done in KPK – Necessary step in establishing an EGALITARIAN SOCIETY in our region.

What is an Egalitarian Society: An egalitarian society is one where every person is entitled to equal rights, receive equal treatment and opportunities. These societies comprise of groups of people who agree to live together in these societies as egalitarianism as one of their core values.

Egalitarianism is the position that equality is central to justice. Egalitarians think, firstly, that unfair life prospects should be equalized. Secondly, that equality is the most or one of the most important irreducible intrinsic or constitutive worth(s) of justice. Thirdly, that welfare should be increased.

Outline of an Egalitarian Society: Extracts: “An active Civil Society can open the door for an enormous variety of energies and talents from a broad spectrum of organisations and individuals. It means opening the way for diversity. It means welcoming plurality. ……three critical underpinnings of a quality Civil Society — a commitment to pluralism, to meritocracy, and to a cosmopolitan ethic. This means that initiatives cannot be contemplated exclusively in terms of economics, but rather as an integrated programme that encompasses social and cultural dimensions as well. Education and skills training, health and public services, conservation of cultural heritage, infrastructure development, urban planning and rehabilitation, rural development, water and energy management, environmental control, and even policy and legislative development are among the various aspects that must be taken into account.”

“An important facet of modern development thinking is that societies can best strengthen themselves by mobilizing their own dynamic forces rather than relying on external support and direction.”

Sources: 1. Book Titled Where Hope Takes Root

2. Civil Society Learning Material

3. Set of TALIMAT Publications.

4. Webcast dated 11th July 2017.

5. AKRSP:

6. An extract from TALIMAT: In studying history, we come across accounts of nations that arose in various times and places. How societies become established and develop over time is an important area of inquiry. In the following as well as the posts that would follow this module, we are concerned with the question of development of societies in modern times. We examine the growth of modern civilization, and its impact on communities across the globe. We seek to become aware of the situation of the less fortunate who have not benefitted from modern advances. We try to gain a deeper understanding of the meaning of progress by approaching this concept from a variety of perspectives. In short we will assess Dunya (the posts so far have dealt with Din as well as intellectual aspects of life) as it confronts human life, to day, i.e. 21st century. The following is a summary of the units we will cover in the series.

Unit 1 – A divided world: We begin the module by comparing the standards of living in wealthy and poor countries, and the questions raised by this division.

Unit 2 – The roots of poverty: We examine some of the outcomes of modern history that have led to the growing gap in wealth between the rich and poor nations.

Unit 3 – The ethical spirit of Islam: In this unit, we study the ethical responsibilities placed by Islam upon Muslims, and how Muslim communities have sought to meet these responsibilities.

Unit 4- Creating new pathways of care: In the second half of the module, we begin our exploration of the AKDN institutions. We examine the principles and approaches that guide their humanitarian work.

Unit 5 – Lifelines of hope: This unit leads us to examine in greater detail the activities of the AKDN agencies in disaster relief, providing for basic needs in deprived communities, and creating opportunities for the less fortunate to earn their living.

Unit 6 – Spheres of growth: We extend our exploration of the work of AKDN by turning to the issues of health, education and shelter. We study examples of projects undertaken in each of these areas by AKDN agencies.

Unit 7- Choices and possibilities: In this concluding unit, we discuss the dilemmas of development facing humanity in the new century. We end by reflecting on the meaning of progress, and the choices open to human beings in creating their future.

Distance Learning – Evaluation and Certification

A certificate is an academic document that provides proof of educational requirements. It may qualify a student for higher education or may indicate that the student is proficient in a certain subject or skill set.
Does distance education have value?
Yes, Distance education has more value than regular courses, it also depends on various other situations. If you have experience and you are pursuing higher education in the same line to enhance your degree,then it does count. For higher education people are mostly doing through distance education.
What is the difference between distance and correspondence education?
A major difference between these two forms of study is the pacing of classes or lessons. Correspondence is not in ‘real time’. Assignments are sent to students, completed and then returned. … These courses are also run over semesters, with a specific time required to complete the course and specific terms of study
Which type of evaluation is done in ODL system?
Term-end examination (summative evaluation)
Almost all the ODL institutes give a higher weighing to the final or term-end examination, which is conducted annually.
Free Online Colleges
Looking for a college education that will cost little to nothing? Believe it or not, it can happen! There are several accredited colleges and universities that will allow you to take college courses and even some that will allow you to earn a degree for little to no money.
Some of these schools require you to have a natural talent in a specific area, such as music. However, there are universities that are open to religious studies, engineering and many other fields that may interest you. Free online schooling is available thanks to many people who donate to education and founders of these schools who believe in higher education for everyone.

Digital learning management systems

  • CenturyTech – Personal learning pathways with micro-lessons to address gaps in knowledge, challenge students and promote long-term memory retention.
  • ClassDojo – Connects teachers with students and parents to build classroom communities.
  • Edmodo – Tools and resources to manage classrooms and engage students remotely, offering a variety of languages.
  • Edraak – Arabic language online education with resources for school learners and teachers.
  • EkStep – Open learning platform with a collection of learning resources to support literacy and numeracy.
  • Google Classroom – Helps classes connect remotely, communicate and stay-organized.
  • Moodle – Community-driven and globally-supported open learning platform.
  • Nafham – Arabic language online learning platform hosting educational video lessons that correspond with Egyptian and Syrian curricula.
  • Paper Airplanes – Matches individuals with personal tutors for 12-16 week sessions conducted via video conferencing platforms, available in English and Turkish.
  • Schoology – Tools to support instruction, learning, grading, collaboration and assessment.
  • Seesaw – Enables the creation of collaborative and sharable digital learning portfolios and learning resources. 
  • Skooler – Tools to turn Microsoft Office software into an education platform.

Systems built for use on basic mobile phones

  • Cell-Ed – Learner-centered, skills-based learning platform with offline options.
  • Eneza Education – Revision and learning materials for basic feature phones.
  • Funzi – Mobile learning service that supports teaching and training for large groups.
  • KaiOS – Software that gives smartphone capabilities to inexpensive mobile phones and helps open portals to learning opportunities.
  • Ubongo – Uses entertainment, mass media, and the connectivity of mobile devices to deliver localized learning to African families at low cost and scale,available in Kiswahili and English.
  • Ustad Mobile – Access and share educational content offline.

Systems with strong offline functionality

  • Kolibri – Learning application to support universal education, available in more than 20 languages.
  • Rumie – Education tools and content to enable lifelong learning for underserved communities.
  • Ustad Mobile – Access and share educational content offline.

Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Platforms

  • Alison – Online courses from experts, available in English, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese
  • Canvas Network – Course catalogue accessible for free for teachers in order to support lifelong learning and professional development.
  • Coursera – Online courses taught by instructors from well-recognized universities and companies.
  • European Schoolnet Academy – Free online professional development courses for teachers in English, French, Italian and other European languages.
  • EdX – Online courses from leading educational institutions.
  • iCourse – Chinese and English language courses for university students.
  • Future Learn – Online courses to help learners study, build professional skills and connect with experts.
  • Icourses – Chinese language courses for university students.
  • TED-Ed Earth School – Online lessons about nature made available continuously during a 5-week period between Earth Day (April 22nd) and World Environment Day (June 5th).
  • Udemy – English, Spanish and Portuguese language courses on ICT skills and programming.
  • XuetangX – Online courses provided by a collection of universities on different subjects in Chinese and English.

Self-directed learning content

  • ABRA – Selection of 33 game-like activities in English and in French to promote reading comprehension and writing skills of early readers.
  • British Council – English language learning resources, including games, reading, writing and listening exercises.
  • Byju’s – Learning application with large repositories of educational content tailored for different grades and learning levels.
  • Code It – Helps children learn basic programming concepts through online courses, live webinars and other kid-friendly material. Available in English and German.
  • Code.org – Wide range of coding resources categorized by subject for K12 students offered for free by a non-profit.
  • Code Week – List of online resources to teach and learn computer coding, available in all EU languages.
  • Discovery Education – Free educational resources and lessons about viruses and outbreaks for different grade levels.
  • Duolingo – Application to support language learning. Supports numerous base and target languages.
  • Edraak –  A variety of resources for K-12 education in Arabic, targeting students, parents and teachers.
  • Facebook Get Digital – Lesson plans, conversation starters, activities, videos and other resources for students to stay connected
  • Feed the Monster – Android application in multiple languages to help teach children the fundamentals of reading, available in 48 languages.
  • History of Africa – A nine-part BBC documentary series on the history of Africa based on UNESCO’s General History of Africa book collection.
  • Geekie – Portuguese language web-based platform that provides personalized educational content using adaptive learning technology.
  • Khan Academy – Free online lessons and practice in math, sciences and humanities, as well as free tools for parents and teachers to track student progress. Available in 40+ languages, and aligned to national curriculum for over 10 countries.
  • KitKit School – Tablet-based learning suite with a comprehensive curriculum spanning early childhood through early primary levels.
  • LabXchange – Curated and user-created digital learning content delivered on an online platform that enables educational and research experiences.
  • Madrasa – Resources and online lessons for STEM subjects in Arabic
  • Mindspark – Adaptive online tutoring system that helps students practice and learn mathematics.
  • Mosoteach – Chinese language application hosting cloud classes.
  • Music Crab – Mobile application accessible for music education. 
  • OneCourse – Child-focused application to deliver reading, writing and numeracy education.
  • Polyup  – Learning content to build math and gaining computational thinking skills for students in primary and early secondary school.
  • Quizlet – Learning flashcards and games to support learning in multiple subjects, available in 15 languages. 
  • SDG Academy Library – A searchable library of more than 1,200 educational videos on sustainable development and related topics.
  • Siyavula – Mathematics and physical sciences education aligned with South African curriculum.
  • Smart History – Art history site with resources created by historians and academic contributors.
  • YouTube – Huge repository of educational videos and learning channels.

Mobile reading applications

  • African Storybook – Open access to picture storybooks in 189 African languages.  
  • Biblioteca Digital del Instituto Latinoamericano de la Comunicación Educativa – Offers free access to Spanish language works and book collections for students and teaching staff in schools and universities
  • Global Digital Library – Digital storybooks and other reading materials easily accessible from mobile phones or computers. Available in 43 languages.
  • Interactive Learning Program – Mobile app in Arabic to advance reading, writing and numeracy skills created by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency.
  • Reads – Digital stories with illustrations in multiple languages.
  • Room to Read – Resources to develop the literacy skills of children and youth with specialized content to support girls.
  • StoryWeaver – Digital repository of multilingual stories for children.
  • Worldreader – Digital books and stories accessible from mobile devices and functionality to support reading instruction. Available in 52 languages.

Collaboration platforms that support live-video communication

  • Dingtalk – Communication platform that supports video conferencing, task and calendar management, attendance tracking and instant messaging.
  • Lark – Collaboration suite of interconnected tools, including chat, calendar, creation and cloud storage, in Japanese, Korean, Italian and English
  • Hangouts Meet – Video calls integrated with other Google’s G-Suite tools.
  • Teams – Chat, meet, call and collaboration features integrated with Microsoft Office software.
  • Skype – Video and audio calls with talk, chat and collaboration features.
  • WeChat Work – Messaging, content sharing and video/audio-conferencing tool with the possibility of including max. 300 participants, available in English and Chinese.
  • WhatsApp – Video and audio calls, messaging and content sharing mobile application.
  • Zoom – Cloud platform for video and audio conferencing, collaboration, chat and webinars.

Tools for teachers to create of digital learning content

  • Thinglink – Tools to create interactive images, videos and other multimedia resources.
  • Buncee – Supports the creation and sharing visual representations of learning content, including media-rich lessons, reports, newsletters and presentations.
  • EdPuzzle – Video lesson creation software.
  • EduCaixa – Courses in Spanish language to help teachers develop the skills and competencies of learners in areas such as communication, entrepreneurship, STEM and big data. 
  • Kaltura – Video management and creation tools with integration options for various learning management systems.
  • Nearpod – Software to create lessons with informative and interactive assessment activities.
  • Pear Deck – Facilitates the design of engaging instructional content with various integration features.
  • Squigl – Content creation platform that transforms speech or text into animated videos.
  • Trello – A visual collaboration tool used by teachers and professors for easier coursework planning, faculty collaboration, and classroom organization.

External repositories of distance learning solutions

  • Brookings – A catalogue of nearly 3,000 learning innovations. Not all of them are distance learning solutions, but many of them offer digital education content.
  • Common Sense Education – Tips and tools to support school closures and transitions to online and at-home learning.
  • Commonweatlh of Learning – List of resources for policymakers, school and college administrators, teachers, parents and learners that will assist with student learning during the closure of educational institutions.
  • Education Nation – Nordic countries have opened up their learning solutions for the world for free, supporting teachers and learners during the school closures.
  • EdSurge – Community-driven list of edtech products, including many distance learning resources for students, teachers and schools, covering primary to post-secondary education levels.
  • European Commission Resources – A collection of online platforms for teachers and educators, available in 23 EU languages. 
  • Global Business Coalition for Education – List of e-learning platforms, information sharing platform  and communication platforms.
  • Keep Learning Going – Extensive collection free tools, strategies, tips and best practices for teaching online from a coalition of USA-based education organizations. Includes descriptions of over 600+ digital learning solutions.
  • Koulu.me – A collection of apps and pedagogical solutions curated by Finnish edtech companies to facilitate distance for pre-primary to upper secondary learners.
  • Organisation internationale de la Francophonie: Resources for primary and secondary school students and teachers for learning and teaching French.
  • UNEVOC Resources – Tools, guides, MOOCS and other resources collected by UNESCO’s International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training for continued learning in the area of TVET.
  • UNHCR – An extensive list of over 600 distance learning solutions from the United Nations agency for refugees.

Distance Learning – Evaluation and Certification

Distance Learning – Evaluation and Certification

A certificate is an academic document that provides proof of educational requirements. It may qualify a student for higher education or may indicate that the student is proficient in a certain subject or skill set.
Does distance education have value?
Yes, Distance education has more value than regular courses, it also depends on various other situations. If you have experience and you are pursuing higher education in the same line to enhance your degree,then it does count. For higher education people are mostly doing through distance education.
What is the difference between distance and correspondence education?
A major difference between these two forms of study is the pacing of classes or lessons. Correspondence is not in ‘real time’. Assignments are sent to students, completed and then returned. … These courses are also run over semesters, with a specific time required to complete the course and specific terms of study
Which type of evaluation is done in ODL system?
Term-end examination (summative evaluation)
Almost all the ODL institutes give a higher weighing to the final or term-end examination, which is conducted annually.
Free Online Colleges
Looking for a college education that will cost little to nothing? Believe it or not, it can happen! There are several accredited colleges and universities that will allow you to take college courses and even some that will allow you to earn a degree for little to no money.
Some of these schools require you to have a natural talent in a specific area, such as music. However, there are universities that are open to religious studies, engineering and many other fields that may interest you. Free online schooling is available thanks to many people who donate to education and founders of these schools who believe in higher education for everyone.

Digital learning management systems

  • CenturyTech – Personal learning pathways with micro-lessons to address gaps in knowledge, challenge students and promote long-term memory retention.
  • ClassDojo – Connects teachers with students and parents to build classroom communities.
  • Edmodo – Tools and resources to manage classrooms and engage students remotely, offering a variety of languages.
  • Edraak – Arabic language online education with resources for school learners and teachers.
  • EkStep – Open learning platform with a collection of learning resources to support literacy and numeracy.
  • Google Classroom – Helps classes connect remotely, communicate and stay-organized.
  • Moodle – Community-driven and globally-supported open learning platform.
  • Nafham – Arabic language online learning platform hosting educational video lessons that correspond with Egyptian and Syrian curricula.
  • Paper Airplanes – Matches individuals with personal tutors for 12-16 week sessions conducted via video conferencing platforms, available in English and Turkish.
  • Schoology – Tools to support instruction, learning, grading, collaboration and assessment.
  • Seesaw – Enables the creation of collaborative and sharable digital learning portfolios and learning resources. 
  • Skooler – Tools to turn Microsoft Office software into an education platform.

Systems built for use on basic mobile phones

  • Cell-Ed – Learner-centered, skills-based learning platform with offline options.
  • Eneza Education – Revision and learning materials for basic feature phones.
  • Funzi – Mobile learning service that supports teaching and training for large groups.
  • KaiOS – Software that gives smartphone capabilities to inexpensive mobile phones and helps open portals to learning opportunities.
  • Ubongo – Uses entertainment, mass media, and the connectivity of mobile devices to deliver localized learning to African families at low cost and scale,available in Kiswahili and English.
  • Ustad Mobile – Access and share educational content offline.

Systems with strong offline functionality

  • Kolibri – Learning application to support universal education, available in more than 20 languages.
  • Rumie – Education tools and content to enable lifelong learning for underserved communities.
  • Ustad Mobile – Access and share educational content offline.

Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Platforms

  • Alison – Online courses from experts, available in English, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese
  • Canvas Network – Course catalogue accessible for free for teachers in order to support lifelong learning and professional development.
  • Coursera – Online courses taught by instructors from well-recognized universities and companies.
  • European Schoolnet Academy – Free online professional development courses for teachers in English, French, Italian and other European languages.
  • EdX – Online courses from leading educational institutions.
  • iCourse – Chinese and English language courses for university students.
  • Future Learn – Online courses to help learners study, build professional skills and connect with experts.
  • Icourses – Chinese language courses for university students.
  • TED-Ed Earth School – Online lessons about nature made available continuously during a 5-week period between Earth Day (April 22nd) and World Environment Day (June 5th).
  • Udemy – English, Spanish and Portuguese language courses on ICT skills and programming.
  • XuetangX – Online courses provided by a collection of universities on different subjects in Chinese and English.

Self-directed learning content

  • ABRA – Selection of 33 game-like activities in English and in French to promote reading comprehension and writing skills of early readers.
  • British Council – English language learning resources, including games, reading, writing and listening exercises.
  • Byju’s – Learning application with large repositories of educational content tailored for different grades and learning levels.
  • Code It – Helps children learn basic programming concepts through online courses, live webinars and other kid-friendly material. Available in English and German.
  • Code.org – Wide range of coding resources categorized by subject for K12 students offered for free by a non-profit.
  • Code Week – List of online resources to teach and learn computer coding, available in all EU languages.
  • Discovery Education – Free educational resources and lessons about viruses and outbreaks for different grade levels.
  • Duolingo – Application to support language learning. Supports numerous base and target languages.
  • Edraak –  A variety of resources for K-12 education in Arabic, targeting students, parents and teachers.
  • Facebook Get Digital – Lesson plans, conversation starters, activities, videos and other resources for students to stay connected
  • Feed the Monster – Android application in multiple languages to help teach children the fundamentals of reading, available in 48 languages.
  • History of Africa – A nine-part BBC documentary series on the history of Africa based on UNESCO’s General History of Africa book collection.
  • Geekie – Portuguese language web-based platform that provides personalized educational content using adaptive learning technology.
  • Khan Academy – Free online lessons and practice in math, sciences and humanities, as well as free tools for parents and teachers to track student progress. Available in 40+ languages, and aligned to national curriculum for over 10 countries.
  • KitKit School – Tablet-based learning suite with a comprehensive curriculum spanning early childhood through early primary levels.
  • LabXchange – Curated and user-created digital learning content delivered on an online platform that enables educational and research experiences.
  • Madrasa – Resources and online lessons for STEM subjects in Arabic
  • Mindspark – Adaptive online tutoring system that helps students practice and learn mathematics.
  • Mosoteach – Chinese language application hosting cloud classes.
  • Music Crab – Mobile application accessible for music education. 
  • OneCourse – Child-focused application to deliver reading, writing and numeracy education.
  • Polyup  – Learning content to build math and gaining computational thinking skills for students in primary and early secondary school.
  • Quizlet – Learning flashcards and games to support learning in multiple subjects, available in 15 languages. 
  • SDG Academy Library – A searchable library of more than 1,200 educational videos on sustainable development and related topics.
  • Siyavula – Mathematics and physical sciences education aligned with South African curriculum.
  • Smart History – Art history site with resources created by historians and academic contributors.
  • YouTube – Huge repository of educational videos and learning channels.

Mobile reading applications

  • African Storybook – Open access to picture storybooks in 189 African languages.  
  • Biblioteca Digital del Instituto Latinoamericano de la Comunicación Educativa – Offers free access to Spanish language works and book collections for students and teaching staff in schools and universities
  • Global Digital Library – Digital storybooks and other reading materials easily accessible from mobile phones or computers. Available in 43 languages.
  • Interactive Learning Program – Mobile app in Arabic to advance reading, writing and numeracy skills created by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency.
  • Reads – Digital stories with illustrations in multiple languages.
  • Room to Read – Resources to develop the literacy skills of children and youth with specialized content to support girls.
  • StoryWeaver – Digital repository of multilingual stories for children.
  • Worldreader – Digital books and stories accessible from mobile devices and functionality to support reading instruction. Available in 52 languages.

Collaboration platforms that support live-video communication

  • Dingtalk – Communication platform that supports video conferencing, task and calendar management, attendance tracking and instant messaging.
  • Lark – Collaboration suite of interconnected tools, including chat, calendar, creation and cloud storage, in Japanese, Korean, Italian and English
  • Hangouts Meet – Video calls integrated with other Google’s G-Suite tools.
  • Teams – Chat, meet, call and collaboration features integrated with Microsoft Office software.
  • Skype – Video and audio calls with talk, chat and collaboration features.
  • WeChat Work – Messaging, content sharing and video/audio-conferencing tool with the possibility of including max. 300 participants, available in English and Chinese.
  • WhatsApp – Video and audio calls, messaging and content sharing mobile application.
  • Zoom – Cloud platform for video and audio conferencing, collaboration, chat and webinars.

Tools for teachers to create of digital learning content

  • Thinglink – Tools to create interactive images, videos and other multimedia resources.
  • Buncee – Supports the creation and sharing visual representations of learning content, including media-rich lessons, reports, newsletters and presentations.
  • EdPuzzle – Video lesson creation software.
  • EduCaixa – Courses in Spanish language to help teachers develop the skills and competencies of learners in areas such as communication, entrepreneurship, STEM and big data. 
  • Kaltura – Video management and creation tools with integration options for various learning management systems.
  • Nearpod – Software to create lessons with informative and interactive assessment activities.
  • Pear Deck – Facilitates the design of engaging instructional content with various integration features.
  • Squigl – Content creation platform that transforms speech or text into animated videos.
  • Trello – A visual collaboration tool used by teachers and professors for easier coursework planning, faculty collaboration, and classroom organization.

External repositories of distance learning solutions

  • Brookings – A catalogue of nearly 3,000 learning innovations. Not all of them are distance learning solutions, but many of them offer digital education content.
  • Common Sense Education – Tips and tools to support school closures and transitions to online and at-home learning.
  • Commonweatlh of Learning – List of resources for policymakers, school and college administrators, teachers, parents and learners that will assist with student learning during the closure of educational institutions.
  • Education Nation – Nordic countries have opened up their learning solutions for the world for free, supporting teachers and learners during the school closures.
  • EdSurge – Community-driven list of edtech products, including many distance learning resources for students, teachers and schools, covering primary to post-secondary education levels.
  • European Commission Resources – A collection of online platforms for teachers and educators, available in 23 EU languages. 
  • Global Business Coalition for Education – List of e-learning platforms, information sharing platform  and communication platforms.
  • Keep Learning Going – Extensive collection free tools, strategies, tips and best practices for teaching online from a coalition of USA-based education organizations. Includes descriptions of over 600+ digital learning solutions.
  • Koulu.me – A collection of apps and pedagogical solutions curated by Finnish edtech companies to facilitate distance for pre-primary to upper secondary learners.
  • Organisation internationale de la Francophonie: Resources for primary and secondary school students and teachers for learning and teaching French.
  • UNEVOC Resources – Tools, guides, MOOCS and other resources collected by UNESCO’s International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training for continued learning in the area of TVET.
  • UNHCR – An extensive list of over 600 distance learning solutions from the United Nations agency for refugees.

Advocacy on Teaching, Learning and Networking through the State of Art Learning Centers in GB

CENTERS

“It has been said that the Internet is the most important development for education since the invention of the printing press. But for now it is grossly underused for educational purposes. Universities around the world should take on the task of developing educational materials, resources and programmes for the Internet. They should add their voices to critics of regulations and policies that impinge on the use of the World Wide Web for educational purposes in favour of commercial interests.’

SPEECH DELIVERED BY His Highness the Aga Khan LOCATION Washington DC, USA (22 April 2001)

GOOGLE IN EDUCATION
TEACHING, LEARNING, NETWORKING

KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY INITIATIVE – Life Long Learning Centers for Developing Human Resources through free World Class Education at the Doorsteps

In the digital age world class education as well as skills are universally accessible as such depending on BRICK and MORTAR facilities of questionable standards will fail to prepare competitive HR for a global world. There is definite need for reorientation towards methods and facilities made accessible by technology. Readers can visit the following post to get a better idea of my advocacy:

https://hisamullahbeg.blogspot.com/2016/12/every-home-unique-world-class.html

Advocacy on Teaching, Learning and Networking through the State of Art Learning Centers in GB

Welcome development, Chinese establish six state of the art lifelong learning centers and open universities in GB towards development of HR in the global world. Propose the LSOs in the area must motivate populations to avail these Facilities.
Recall the fourteen facilities established by AKDN in 2010 through the Education department as well.

Request integrate these to provide free of cost knowledge and skills to every household thereby developing an innovative human resource throughout the region.

Please study the contents on the following links:

  1.   Google for Education:
  2.   https://support.google.com/a/answer/139019?hl=en
  3.   https://support.google.com/edu/classroom/answer/6025224?hl=en
  4.   https://support.google.com/edu/?hl=en
  5.   https://developers.google.com/edu/faq
  6.   https://edu.google.com/training-support/privacy-security/?modal_active=none
  7.   Drop Box:
  8.   https://www.dropbox.com/help
  9.   https://www.dropboxforum.com/t5/Get-started/ct-p/101009
  10. https://gsuite.google.com/marketplace/app/dropbox_for_gmail/33761876029
  11.         https://www.dropboxforum.com/t5/Get-started/ct-p/101009
  12. Red spider software
  13. https://www.scientific.net/AMR.605-607.2530
  14. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272054700_Application_of_Red_Spider_Software_in_Multimedia_Network_Classroom
  15. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1001.5146&rep=rep1&type=pdf

For a firsthand experience send your E-Mail address and accept subsequent INVITATION.

https://gsuite.google.com/marketplace/app/dropbox_for_gmail/33761876029

INTEGRATION WITH POPULAR PLATFORMS

Home Classroom
Manage teaching and learning with Classroom
Classroom helps students and teachers organize assignments, boost collaboration, and foster better communication.
Note to Minister of Education GB and VC KIU: 
As a start I request you to get a report as to how many of these twenty centers are functional and delivering to the schools, colleges, University campus and the general population. Then integrate these to provide free of cost knowledge and skills to every household thereby developing a innovative human resource throughout the region.

Education and skills for 21st century that you can acquire FREE OF COST through Lifelong Learning Centers in our region 

A typical MIT course that can be done free of cost anywhere in our region using the state of Art learning centers.

https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/edgerton-center/ec-s07-photovoltaic-solar-energy-systems-fall-2004/

RESPONSE:

Ibrahim Sanai

Salam sir, I read it and will bring soon as addenda for discussion in the fourth coming Review Meeting of the Education Department Gilgit Baltistan.

Vice Chancellor KIU Thanks Baig sb. As always appreciate your sharing wonderful resources.
INTERNET:
Free high speed internet in Hunza, part of Cross Border Optical Fiber Cable Project:
The infrastructure has been provided by the Chinese and also tested. Will be available to populations only when GOP (SCO) issues NOC. We request GOP to facilitate establishment of KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY by issuing the NOC without further reluctance.

Vice Chancellor KIU

KIU is deploying Campus Management System, Learning Management System as part of the Vice Chancellor vision for technological transformation of the institute. Within next 6-9 months most of the operation of KIU will be automated and online. The cited software and learning platform can be integrated once the basic IT infrastructure is laid. Initially the services will be offered through intranet due to poor internet services. Later it will offered at internet once the services improve in GB.

Reply: Hisamullah Beg:

Dear VC

My proposal contemplates use of existing twenty centers as extended campus of KIU without any addition of infrastructure or investments or staff. Policy REORIENTATION will result in immediate facilitation towards preparation of HR for 21st century and provide FREE OF COST education and skills at the doorsteps. For a detailed explanation of views kindly visit: https://hisamullahbeg.blogspot.com/2017/08/knowledge-society-

Dr. Attaullah Shah

Thanks Baig sb for your suggestions. KIU would love to utilize the existing 21 technology based study centers for outreach of its programs. I have been visiting deep into the valleys of Yaseen, Gojal etc and have seen that there are many difficult areas which cannot be accessed through formal means of education. In such cases, technology driven Open and Distance Learning (ODL) can be one of the most feasible option. I may need the following information:
1. The locations of these 21 Centers
2. The existing technological platform at the Centers and its accessibility and relativity as presently due to lack of electricity and strong internet, the traditional web based education is not possible in most of the remote valleys.
3. If KIU decides to use these Centers for the outreach of its programs, then who has to be contracted

Due to recent stringent regime of HEC, the Distance Learning Programs have been halted in most of the Universities. However KIU can initiate some skill development short courses, diploma and certificate programs.
REPLY:
Gratified to read your response. Request you to visit one facility located in Government Middle School Altit in Hunza. In all four facilities are in Hunza while remaining sixteen are spread throughout GB and in the jurisdiction of Education department. A coord conference with Minister of Education will be a desirable step towards better utilization of these facilities.

 

CIVIL SOCIETY LEARNING MATERIAL

https://hisamullahbeg.blogspot.com/2017/06/civil-society-learning-material-energy.html

  1. The Quran:

Saheeh International

١١  لَهُ مُعَقِّبَاتٌ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ يَحْفَظُونَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُغَيِّرُ مَا بِقَوْمٍ حَتَّىٰ يُغَيِّرُوا مَا بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ ۗ وَإِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ سُوءًا فَلَا مَرَدَّ لَهُ ۚ وَمَا لَهُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ مِنْ وَالٍ

11  He has a succession; before him and behind him, protecting him by Allah’s command. Allah does not change the condition of a people until they change what is within themselves. And if Allah wills any hardship for a people, there is no turning it back; and apart from Him they have no protector.

 [13:11]

  1. TARGETS FOR AKRSP/LSOs:
  2. TARGET ONE: In twenty five years’ time span, improve the economic conditions so that populations in Northern areas and Chitral can meet the ever increasing costs of health and education and also become SELF SUSTAINING.
  3. TARGET TWO. Groom indigenous leadership capable of establishing democracy, (pre-requisite for meritocracy and pluralism) and also capable of planning for a better quality of life for their future without external inputs.
  4. TARGET THREE: Facilitate establishment ofKnowledge Society in the Program Area (included in 2003).
  5. “I think I am fortunate to be able to talk to you about serious issues and for you to understand to position the Jamat correctly for the next decades where I would like the Jamat to be, Insha-Allah, in the world in 10 years, 15 years, 20 years.”  13 December 2008.
    4.“The conviction that home-grown intellectual leadership of exceptional caliber is the best driver of society’s future development,”…….. “In sum, I believe that Civil Society is one of the most powerful forces in our time, one that will become an increasingly universal influence, engulfing more countries, influencing, reshaping and sometimes even replacing ineffective regimes.” also specific to energy: “The energy challenge – here and elsewhere – will require a multi-faceted response, including bold innovations in the way we both produce and consume energy… Hydroelectric power fulfills that goal. It is ‘clean’ energy – advancing sustainable development while minimising its environmental impact.” 
  6.  Guidelines on how to organize and operate: Well illustrated
    civil society learning material.   guideline booklets.
  7. Available Resources towards investment:

Village Organization (VO/ WO) saving scheme

“Better Tomorrow Collections” by the councils.

NOTE: As per published policy, councils are LSOs as well.

DIAMONDJUBILEE GOALS – 11th July 2017;

  1. Poverty alleviation.
    2.Stabilization and strengthening of institutions.
    3. Improvement in education from early childhood to tertiary education.
    4. Improvement in infra-structure particularly water and energy.

ROLE OFCIVIL SOCIETY:

“This endeavor was based on the ever increasing appreciation that the social change and the improvement in the quality of life of the various communities around the world is driven by capacities of civil society. Increasingly the role of the governments is expected to be an enabler for the civil society to grow positively. Fortunately in many of the countries where the Jamat is living public and private sectors recognize the need and benefit to integrate the civil society and it is within that context since the last ten years the AKDN has expanded its activities.”

“An important facet of modern development thinking is thatsocieties can best strengthen themselves by mobilizing their own dynamic forces rather than relying on external support and direction.”

“The AKDN because of multiplicity of its activities in economics, health, education, cultural activities and others is exceptionally well placed to enhance the development of civil society in many countries of the world. It is led by generous men and women who offer their competencies and their time, many without any compensation so as to contribute to the improvement of quality of life in their societies. These initiatives draw support from our as well as other communities and institutions and their outcomes are measred against best practices. Both measuring device and optimization of performance are key contributors to positive outcomes, thus I wish to thank them today all those who have contributed and are contributing to our actions in various parts of the world through various entities and to say how much I admire and grateful for their work.”

Civil Society

The term “civil society” refers to the range of actors and organisations in society which are

(i) nongovernmental and

(ii) not-for-profit.

Such organisations will have diverse forms, goals and purposes, but all have the potential to improve the quality of life of the citizens in the countries where they operate. NGOs are understood as a sub-set of civil society characterised by size, development orientation, formality, and reliance on foreign funding.

The overall goal AKDN is trying to achieve through this programme is seeking to ensure that over time there are a sufficient number of Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) in quality, geographic distribution, and spectrum of activities so that “civil society,” as a component of society at large, has an unmistakable positive impact on the quality of life for significant segments of the national population.

“Civil society is powered by private energies, committed to the public good. It draws on the ancient, classical link between democracy and the publicly-committed citizen. ‘

Civil society, particularly indigenous NGOs, must play a central role in promoting good governance and accountability.

But to be effective, NGOs must be well-run and well-governed themselves. They must operate under a code of ethics and governance that stresses accountability so that resources are not wasted. They must also have a quantifiable impact on development challenges, as measured against well-recognised indicators, such as infant and maternal mortality, literacy and the reduction in the incidence of disease. Increasing community participation is also vital to progress.

To help these organisations become effective and self-reliant, AKDN offers resources and training for essential administrative skills such as record-keeping, accounting and methods of good governance. It also helps communities to lobby for change by working in collaboration with other villages when liaising with the government.

Stabilization and strengthening of institutions. Organize and operate in accordance with these guidelines (Civil Society Learning Material).

The AKDN Civil Society Programme has produced a series of internal booklets to help those involved with AKDN agencies to acquire the skills they need to build and strengthen effective civil society organisations (CSOs).

There are basically four types of institutions for whom these booklets are intended:

  1. The Jamati Institutions:National Councils, ITREB, GRB, NCAB, and EPB
  2. The Boards of the Service Companies – AKHS, AKES, AKPBS
  3. Associations set up by the Service Companies or by other AKDN agencies to support the purposes of their programme – such as PTAs, school management committees, nurses associations, midwives associations, teachers associations, tenants associations
  4. CSOs outside AKDN agencies which support their purposes

All such organisations involve people who have committed themselves to improving the society in which they live by what they do and how they behave. Commitment and voluntarism may, however, not be enough for an effective organisation – specific organisational skills are needed as well. And these skills can be learnt.

The following booklets are also available in this series:

  1. Problems in Managing Organisations
  2. Skills in Managing Organisations
  3. Improving Management
  4. The Board and its Functions
  5. Organisational Structures and Systems
  6. Managing People and their Work
  7. Managing Finance
  8. Building a More Civil Society

NOTE:   “societies can best strengthen themselves by mobilizing their own dynamic forces rather than relying on external support and direction.” Imam has desired REORIENTATION since 2002, I have so far not succeeded in influencing the mindset of local leadership as well as institutions towards this direction, read and listen to this in the DJ webcast:
 https://soundcloud.com/hisamullah7/new-recording-file5

I hope you will help Imam.

Awareness-Campaign

Visit Facebook Barakah Page @1000fold – His Highness the Aga Khan: A Visual and Textual Celebration, 1957 – 2017 — Simerg – Insights from Around the World

Great pieces at http://www.barakah.com! Reader: I thoroughly enjoy reading the Daily Nation regularly. The writers know how to make the stories interesting. The format is excellent. The writers know how to attract the readers, as the story flows smoothly. It is fun reading these stories and one gets educated with the use of different vocabulary, […]

via Visit Facebook Barakah Page @1000fold – His Highness the Aga Khan: A Visual and Textual Celebration, 1957 – 2017 — Simerg – Insights from Around the World

Concrete Proposal towards “Hunza Power Supply Company”

Kinetic energy of water flow in a stream or river is a renewable source of energy abundantly available in our region. Harnessing this source through well established methods is both capital and time intensive. I am suggesting an alternate technology suited from affordability as well as indigenous manufacture en  mass. This involves use of a “floating hydro-electric generator” tethered to the anchors on river bank and suited to minimum flow in winters and also swollen rivers during summers.
Objective: To provide electricity to each village independently through self-help and gradually increasing the capacity to meet entire demand needed towards economic transformation.
Inspiration
Lets see and create something that has the same look and feel that can be seen in this video I found the other day.

Levels / Stages
Prototype Development and functionality Tests
Need interested youngsters ready to go for a career in this field to participate.
Collaboration by government and established CSOs such as AKRSP is highly desirabl.
Please feel free to add or update these if you think I missed anything!

Experience Shared: On the other hand, don’t under-estimate what one person looking to change their piece of the world can do. Before I bought the FITZ Waterwheel company, I had been through some hard times. Now 6 years later, I operate 1250 kilowatts of generators commercially, providing clean, environmentally safe power to over 1000 homes. I hope you have as much fun and satisfaction with your waterwheel, whatever the size.
(Rudy Behrens owns the FITZ Waterwheel Company. 118 Sycamore Ct., Collegeville, PA 19426, Phone: (215) 489-6256.)

Conflict of Interest

A company owned by the family of Jared Kushner, U.S. President Donald Trump’s son-in-law, stands to receive over $400 million from China’s Anbang Insurance Group, that is investing in a Manhattan building owned by the Kushners, Bloomberg reported. Details of the agreement are being circulated to attract additional investors, Bloomberg reported on Monday. The building,…

via Kushner Family Stands to Get $400 Million from a Chinese Firm in Real Estate Deal — TIME